Thursday, October 28, 2010

Gammellund, Mors, North Jutland, Thisted amt.

Gammellund, ab. 20 km southwest of Nykøbing Mors
Øster Assels sogn, Morsø Sønder herred, Thisted amt.

Gammellund is is now situated far from the beaten track on the southernest tip of the island Mors, where the hills end in the salt beach meadows along the coast of Limfjorden. The farm is now unimpressive and outparcelled, but it was once a grand place. Lund or Lundegård was the king's permanent castle, placed by the important arterial road (adelvejen = nobility road), leading from Thyholm through Mors, first across Tambo Sound to Jegindø, next a short sailing trip to Hester Odde at Mors. Between Sillerslev Øre and Nymølle in Salling was a ferry route of importance.

There were often feuds about the disposals of the ferry routes among the inhabitants in north and south - in 1598 Henrik Below of Spøttrup tried in vain to prevent the vasal at Lund, Thomas Fasti, in using the ferry at Nymølle (belonged to Spøttrup) - and as late as ab. 1850 Gammellund's owner fought with the Jegindø- commoners about the ferry-privilege. The first historically known owner of Lund, hr. Johan Gotskalksen Skarpenberg, who wrote himself of the farm in 1404, had a large estate south of the Limfjord, among others Spøttrup.

Salling, Nymølle nær færgested "Pinen og Plagen".

The large, overgrown castle bank, which is in the garden just north of the farm, reminds of the vanished greatness of Lund. The bank rises steep from the moat, which had an outer bank on three sides. The fourth bank is levelled, measuring ab. 80 x 53 m and was by a cross moat divided in two. This is a so-called castrum-curia plan, which had its actual fortification upon a lesser, now out-digged northeastern bank, while the buildings were at the large southwestern bank, which was with buildings until 1818. The earliest buildings were probably wood- or half-timbered houses, although bricks have been found, but the plan must be from before Skarpenberg's time.

The Skarpenberg family was one of several North German magnate-families, who came to Denmark in the 14th century, when the Holstein princes infiltrated the Nordic countries. Hr. Johan's father Gotskalk Skarpenberg had via marriage to Niels Bugge's daughter Elisabeth (Lisbeth) achieved a large estate. Spøttrup and Højriis belonged to the estate, which hr. Johan sold, but he was also said to have lost Lund. According to legend he had to give his estate to the Crown and escape land and kingdom , because he had burnt down a royal castle. It is doubtful, if there is any historical base of this, for Skarpenberg was one of the mightiest men in the kingdom and one of queen Margrethe's most trusted men. He is probably mentioned as a rigsråd in 1417, but was dead four years later and buried in Viborg cathedral. But his estate at Mors made later up a royal vasalry with own judicial rights, which included Vester and Øster Assels parish. In 1605 was Jegindø parish added.

Salling, Spøttrup Castle

In 1651 were Lund plus Bustrup in Salling laid out to two of the Crown's creditors, two brother's-in-law, Hamburg-merchants Albert Baltzer Berns and Leonhard Marselis. When Bern's daughter Elisabeth in 1654 married her father's earlier trainee and later partner, admiralitetsråd Poul Klingenberg, she probably brought Lund to him. Klingenberg was ennobled in 1669 - he belonged to those creditors of the Crown, who after 1660 by lay out was given much estate (Dueholm, Hanerau), and he bought himself more estate (Højriis, Ørum). Beyond his business he went into the government service in an active way and reorganized the mail services. But it proved, that he overreached himself and had too much bad estate; besides he was involved in transactions leading to lawsuits, which finally brought him on the verge of bankruptcy. Five years before his death he had in 1685 to give up the mail services, but he transferred at the same time Lund, Højriis and Ørum as a maternal inheritance to his only son, Poul von Klingenberg; thus it was saved for the family.

Mors, Gammellund, castle bank

In 1724 more than 40% of the peasant-estate at Mors still belonged to the Klingenberg-family, but Lund was hardly inhabited. Both the young Poul von Klingenberg (+ 1723) and his son, etatsråd Frederik Christian von Klingenberg, resided at Højriis. The last mentioned's widow, Anne Cathrine von Bülow married in 1751 oberst Philip Gotfred von Samitz, and the following year was built a new main building at Lund, a four-winged, half-timbered building plan with tailed roofs. Samitz died in 1762, his widow a year after, whereafter Lund and Blistrup plus taxes and peasant-estate were sold to kancelliråd Thomas Thomsen Lund at Grinderslev Kloster.

Thomas Lund is one of more interesting owners. He was born in 1727 at the manor Slumstrup, and he first speculated in estate-trading, before he came to Mors. He was an energetic farmer - there are legends about him as a "peasant-tormentor". The ghost of the one-legged "Thomas Pileben" (pile = dart off) is still riding his horse between Øster Assels and Gammellund, and in 1805 was written that his name was still mentioned in fear. But the management of the farm was improved, and in 1768 he built a solid farmbuilding. He also established tileworks, limeworks and a faience- and stoneware factory, founded by royal privilege as the first outside Copenhagen. But in spite of good materials and sales' conditions the factory became a big disappointment, and he died a ruined man in 1777. Already before his death estate and factory were at auction, but it was his widow, who in 1778 sold to Hans Meulengracht and Saxo Aschanius.

Mors, landscape

The new owners continued the factory-work, but this only lasted for a short time. In 1784 Meulengracht left the partnership, and it seems the work had come to a stop. The factory building is still mentioned in 1798 in a fire-evaluation. Aschanius died in 1788, and his widow sold six years later the estate to two estate-speculators, landsdommerne Peter Severin Fønss and Henrik Johan de Leth, who sold out more than 300 *tønder hectare peasant-estate, whereafter they in 1798 let the rests pass on to Viborg's byfoged Thomas Wissing. In 1804 he achieved royal permission to divide the manor in two parcels, Lund and Peterslund,which had happened already the previous year.

Lund now went from hand to hand; in 1818 Chr. Jacobsen of Hegnet took over the property, which was divided once again, since the parcel Katrinelund was laid out. From here was Nylund later laid out. Oberst v. Samitz' main building was broken down, and the living quarters were moved away from the old castle bank. An earlier horse stable and cart shed, which were placed at Thomas Lunds farm building, were now farmhouse. This simple white-washed building still stands, while the big barn from 1768 burnt down in 1945.
Gammellund, which the strongly reduced main parcel is called, was sold in 1818 to Chr. Jacobsen's son-in-law Søren de Stiernholm and came in 1823 to Christian Riis at Blistrup, who in 1846 gave it to his daughter's son, rigsdagsmand, justitsråd Johan Chr. Bonne, who had it until 1880. The estate changed owner a few times, until it was sold to J. Jensen in 1929. Large tracts were out-parcelled in 1936, and Gammellund was now just a farm of 70 *tønder land, which in 1966 belonged to Laurits Jensen.

* 1 tønde land = ab. 0,55 hectare = 5.516,2 m²

Source: Trap Danmark, Thisted amt, Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 12, Nordvestjylland, 1966, ved arkivar Flemming Jerk.

photo 2002/2007: grethe bachmann.

Monday, October 18, 2010

Haraldskær, East Jutland, Vejle amt.

Haraldskær, ab. 6 km west of Vejle
Skibet sogn, Tørrild herred, Vejle amt

Haraldskær was mentioned the first time in Erik of Pommern's rule. In 1434 it belonged to Niels Friis, one of the earliest from the Friis-family with a skaktavl (chess pattern) in the coat of arms/shield, the Friis' "of Haraldskær", as they are called. The name of the farm was then written "Harildkerr". Later other names Herritskier, Haritzkier etc.

Niels Friis got, according to tradition, the farm via his wife fru Ellen Henningsdatter Moltke from Bavelse. He wrote himself in 1432 "of Skibet", later until 1448 and the last time he is mentioned, of Haraldskær. His son Anders Friis was the next owner of the farm and lived still in 1507. He was married the second time to fru Bodil Cristensdatter Steenfeld, who was a quarrelsome lady. It seems she ruled for a long time at Haraldskær, where she lived still in 1543. She is often mentioned in the documents of that time. Anders Friis and Bodil had, among other children, the sons Jørgen Friis, the later wellknown belligerent Viborg-bishop, who rebuilt Hald, and Iver Friis, who died in 1557 as the owner of Haraldskær. He was buried in Skibet church, where was placed a large stone on his grave. Fru Sophie Albertsdatter Glob, who outlived him for several years, kept probably the farm until later, since some of the children were still underage. Later the farm went to the son Albert Friis, one of the most known owners of Haraldskær. He was a member of rigsrådet and owner of several larger and lesser vasalries, especially the important Riberhus.

Besides other estate Albert Friis was also the owner of Hvolgård. He was a very rich man, who improved Haraldskær in many ways. By exchange with the Crown he increased the estate; he also bought the vicarage in 1576, which was situated close to Skibet church, and placed its land under the main farm. Albert Friis built the main wing of the manor, the western, which is originally a free-standing building. The coat of arms on a fireplace in the second storey says that Albert Friis was the building master. Later, in 1768, was added an 18 bay long brick-walled building in one story, where from earlier were 8 bays half-timbered work. The buildings were surrounded by moats, which were filled up in the middle of the 1800s. Close to Haraldskær leads a bridge across the river (Vejle Å). It was after consent from Albert Friis built by Frederik II as a drawbridge (1585) in order to obtain an easy connection between Koldinghus and Skanderborg (castles).

Albert Friis died in 1601 and was buried in his parish church beside his late wife and some children, who had died infants. His surviving 6 daughters shared the rich inheritance and got each 27.000 rigsdaler in estate and money. This was a large fortune after that time's slide rule, but it never was much blessing for the daughters. The following 75 years became a confused time, where the farm either went from hand to hand or was divided into small parts among the heirs and their creditors. The daughter Karen Friis was married to the indebted waster Truid Bryske of Langesø, who had become the owner of Haraldskær, which he had to transfer to his sister-in-law fru Lisbeth Friis, since she had stood surety for him. She was indebted herself, and when her brother-in-law Frederik Munk (Lange) of Krogsgård, who was married to her sister Sophie, stood surety for her, she had to transfer the farm to him in 1622. He had until that point been a wealthy man and the owner of several manors, but he was now ruined and had to give up most of his estate. However, he kept Haraldskær until his death in 1634. His widow fru Sophie Friis also hold on to Haraldskær in spite of her economic difficulties, until she about 20 years later (ab. 1654) followed him to the grave. The son Jørgen Munk died almost at the same time as his mother.

Vejle Å river at Haraldskær

The daughters of Frederik Munk had shared the small rests of former glory and owned each a small part of the main farm. They lived in very straitened circumstances. Anne Munk showed to be a very enterprising lady. She succeeded in buying extra land and a little estate for the main farm. The year of her death, in 1677, she had sold it together with the added parts she had bought, and it seems that she owned all of it. The buyer was oberst Conrad v.d. Brincken of Fårup. He gradually succeeded in collecting land and peasant-farms to make Haraldskær profitable. The land of Fårup was also used for the completion, until more peasant-estate could be bought. When he died in 1696 Fårup came to his son Bendix, while Haraldskær and completed estate came to his son, ritmester Godske v.d. Brincken (+1730).

Main farm and estate were on auction in 1731 and was bought together with Skibet church by oberstløjtnant Pierre d'Andischou. When he died in 1751, almost everything had been pawned.
Maybe it was because the farm building burnt down in 1747 and was rebuilt, but it might also be caused by his establishing a comprehensive firm, i.e. a small-arms factory and a powder mill. This did not work out, and in order to get as much as possible from the estate after his death the exchange-commissioners had to put the estate on auction in small parts. But the estate was not divided however, it was sold to merchant and manufacturer, etatsråd Gert Hansen de Lichtenberg, who owned the two neighbouring manors Engelsholm and Kjeldkær.

Haraldskær at farm buildings

He transferred three years later (1754) all three farms to his son-in-law Christen de Linde, who moved the factory longer to the west and put Skibet church through a thorough restoration. He sold in 1767 all three farms to his brother-in-law Hans Henrik de Lichtenberg of the entailed estate Bidstrup, who the next year had royal permission to sell farm and estate separately . The same year he sold Haraldskær with only a little part of the estate and Skibet church and Jerlev parish' royal taxes to major Ove Bernhardt Lüttichau from Lerkenfeldt, who a few moths later married fru Margrethe Bülow, née Kaas, who died at the farm in 1777.

Lüttichau at once began buying estate in order to complete the farm. In 1791 the cultivated area was 350 tønder land. (1 tønde land = about 1.363 acres) When Lüttichau died childless in 1781, only 35 years of age, farm and estate came on auction again and was bought by Henrik Schmidt, who owned it until his death in 1793. His widow Birgitte Ravn married the next year major Severin Laurentius Lautrup, who in 1806 sold the main farm with Kvakmølle and a small part of the estate to Johannes Ditlev Rahr. He run Haraldskær in an old-fashioned way and could not cope during the difficult times, which arrived in the country, ruining so many people. Agent Nikolaj Nyholm, a merchant in Vejle, became the owner of several large and smaller Jutland manors, Brejninggård and Søndersthoved, Dueholm and Oxholm etc. - besides an obligation issued by Rahr of 45.666 rigsdaler with accruing interests. Nyholm obtained judgment against Rahr in 1820, and at last he bought Haraldskær. He sold the farm in 1829 to August Theodor Schütte, who later, as the owner of Bygholm, was known as a good farmer.

Vejle Ådal at Haraldskær

The farm then went from Schütte to Danqvart Neergaard of Lille Grundet, who owned it from 1838-42, and from him to Carl August Søltoft, who belonged to a solid Jutland proprietær-family. He was born at Tyrrestrup by Horsens, which was owned by his family from 1770 till 1914. He was an enterprising farmer, who did much for his farm by marling and drainage. He partly rebuilt the old farm buildings in 1855 and the following years, and the mill was extended. He sold the last small part of the estate and filled up the old moats around the manor. The main building was modernized in 1852-53. Søltoft was interested in two special things: willow planting and starlings. He planted various sorts of willow and sold considerable quantitites for basketmaker-work, and he had tried to fight the cockchafers by protecting the starlings. During 12 years he had 500 starlings' nestboxes in the garden. 134 boxes were placed in the five magnificent limes at the manor, the rest were in the forest belonging to the manor. He finally decided that now were the cockchafers almost extinct - so therefore the starling must be the most useful bird in agriculture.

Haraldskær at farm buildings.

During the 30 years Søltoft owned Haraldskær, from 1842 till 1871, (he lived until 1893) it rose to almost double value.This was due both to his improvements and to the market conditions. He was followed as owner in 1871 by løjtnant Oluf Henrik Niels de Bang of Sparresholm, co-owner of the Bangske fideikommis (entailed estate). He died already the same year and was succeeded by his son Hjalmar, who rebuilt the last of d'Andischous farm buildings in 1914. A few years before his death 1918 he transferred Haraldskær to his son Oluf de Bang, who for long had been the tenant, but he sold it shortly after in 1916 to manufacturer Christian M. Hess in Vejle, who built a new tenant-house and carried out a thorough restoration of the inside of the manor in consideration for the old look. Several plaster-lofts were removed, so the heavy oak-beams were of their best advantage again. The ramschackled side wings were rebuilt in 1917.

Chr. M. Hess died in 1929, and his eldest son, civilingeniør Christian E. Hess was by inheritance the owner of the farm in 1931. He sold some land in 1941 for a projected school and gave land to an extension of the church yard (Skibet church). The land was in his time very improved by marling, drainage and cultivation, and the yield was growing. The farm buildings burnt partly down in 1937 and was rebuilt in modern look. Ingeniør Hess died in 1963, but he had already in 1962 transferred the estate to his sons, amtsfuldmægtig, cand.jur. Christian Martin Hess and sekretær, cand.jur. Mogens Hess.

Skibet kirke ved Haraldskær

It was especially as the home of the largest and most prominent line of the famous family of the Skaktavl-Friis which caused Haraldskær to be famous among the Danish manors. Among the following owners were only few of that high reputation. Even though the building lost some of its venerable look by modernizing, it is however worth a visit, where it lies in Vejle river valley, surrounded by vigorous growth and green meadows. The country road from Vejle to Varde runs upon the hill with wide views and passes close to Skibet church, where many, who lived and worked at the farm, have got their final rest.

Kilde: Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 15, 1967, Fra Århus til Kolding, "Haraldskær", af arkivar cand.mag. S. Nygård.

photo Haraldskær/Skibet 2002/2007/2008: grethe bachmann

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Boller Castle, East Jutland, Vejle amt.

Boller Castle, 6 km east of Horsens
Uth sogn, Bjerre herred, Vejle amt.

The earliest known owner of Boller is Otte Limbek, he is in 1350 written to Boller and has, as one of the followers of the Holstein Grafs, become the owner of the manor; but Boller belonged in the end of the century to Mogens Munk (Bjælke-Munk), queen Margrethe's trusted man. In spite of this it seems they had a break , for after Mogens Munk was killed in a fight with the Holsteiners in 1410, the queen was accused of having taken his furniture and personal property at Boller; this was later given back to his brother. But earlier had queen Margrethe, according to the family books, intervened in Mogens Munk's fate, since she had forced jomfru Kirsten Pedersdatter Thott from Næs - who else was meant to be Mogens Munk's wife - to marry Jep Mus, who kidnapped her from Bosø kloster and married her in Helsingborg. This deed cost Jep Mus' his life, Mogens Munk killed him, and jomfru Kirsten moved into Boller as Mogens Munk's wife.

Mogens Munk and Kirsten Pedersdatter had three daughters. Anne, called "the haughty", married rigsråd Henrik Knudsen Gyldenstierne, who was rich in estate and by this marriage also became landlord at Boller, which he by exchange of property in 1444 increased with Dagnæs village. Fru Anne survived her husband and owned Boller until her death; in 1452 the farm with the belonging, considerable estate in the districts by Horsens went to their daughter Sophie Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne and her husband Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz of Bjørnholm.

By this marriage Boller came into the ownership of the famous family Rosenkrantz for more than 150 years. With his far and wide estates (ab. 800 peasant farms) must Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz undoubtedly have been one of the richest men in the country. He gave the management of Boller to his son Holger Eriksen Rosenkrantz, who is mentioned for the first time in 1485 and already at that point is written of Boller; nine years later hr. Erik conveyed the farm with belonging property to his son, and after Holger Eriksen's death in 1496 his father let - with authority from his other sons Niels and Henrik and his daughters' husbands - in 1499 issue a new letter, where Boller - while Erik still lived (he died in 1503) - was laid out to Holger Eriksen's children and their heirs, who then owned the estate forever.

Holger Rosenkrantz was married twice. With Margrethe Flemming he had the son Otte, with Anne Meinstrup, "fru Anne Holgers" - first court lady of three Danish queens, known for her masterful manners and tragic death - he had the son Holger. Otte Holgersen Rosenkrantz, who since 1508 had owned Boller, died together with his wife of plague in Lübeck in 1525 and left 6 children. His father's halfbrother Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz got the guardianship, which did not last long, but it was mostly a way to secure the brother's children the so-called "Norwegian inheritance", which was about 1/24 of Norway's owed land, and the guardianship had not yet finished, when he was killed in the battle at Svenstrup in 1534. A message from Johan Friis to Anders Sørensen Vedel makes it obvious that the terrors of the civil war also had been close to Boller. The peasant-army attacked the fortificated Boller.

In the meantime were Otte Holgersen Rosenkrantz' children grown-up, and in 1537 the guardianship went to the oldest brother, Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz, who was born in 1517. He had just returned after an education abroad and was now full-time occupied by taking care of the family estate. Holger Rosenkrantz is mentioned of Boller in 1540, when he gave Christian III a money supply, and from 1548 he took permanent residence at Boller after having married Mette Krognos. But he was not the sole owner until 1551 after various family matters about exchange and inheritance had been solved. The farm had now achieved an owner, whose name shows everywhere in the history of that time, in politics and diplomacy, in administration and military, and also at court, and with a close personal relation to the king. He was appointed governor in Nørrejylland (1567-1575) and he was Danmarks Riges marsk (military top chief) until 1573.

In connection to his collecting estate Holger Rosenkrantz was allowed to place the villages Tyrsted, Ustrup and Nedergård and a farm Rold under Boller birk (judicial district); he got jus patronatus of Tyrsted and Uth church and in 1574 a gift letter of Sejet church, the church land etc. and allowance to break down the church to re-use the materials for his parish church in Uth. He started some building work on both Boller and at another property, Rosenvold, but death interrupted his plans. He probably only achieved to build the northern house at Boller. He was a man, who wanted to help others, he let buy and place books in Uth, Tyrsted and Hatting church, and in his position as a vasal at Bygholm he established Horsens hospital and made the king give favours; he also gave some estate - which his parents had founded for masses in Mariager kloster - to the hospital, since the masses were now abandoned; he set up five beds at the hospital with rights for himself and his heirs to choose them for poor people. The old inventory from Skt. Hans kloster at Horsens - which he by a special royal favour was allowed to keep - was given to the hospital.

With many important state assignments, as the owner of widespread and rich estate and with his good relations to the king he had a prominent position in the social life of that period. From what is told about him is it obvious that he was a Renaissance man. He did not spend much of his time at his estate Boller, even his son Otte Christoffer's birth and a younger son's baptism were celebrated elsewhere. He died at Bygholm in 1575 and was brought to Boller, where he was buried in his parish church in Uth. His wife Karen Gyldenstierne, whom he had married in 1568, was an active and energetic lady, but also somewhat stubborn and self-assured, her authoritity often turned into aggression. She managed the estate during her son's underage years with a firm hand.

First of all she wanted to find a resting place for her husband, befitting his rank - the strong Renaissance sense of the undying fame. The year after his death she let Uth old church break down and let build a new three-naved church; she decorated it with the impressive, characteristic painting of Holger Rosenkrantz, herself and their four sons, and she let set up the beautiful altar piece. She increased the family estate via numerous exchange of property, and Boller's and Rosenvold's adjoining land grew fast. She had given her sons the best of educations and in wise dispositions she had managed for each of them that they could enter a large estate with widespread adjoining land and a perfect finished main building. After in 1585 having re-built Rosenvold, she finished in 1588 the main building at Boller, which is told at the inscription-tablets on both manors. She - "fru Karen Holgers" - had now taken care of her closest family, and after Otte Christoffer had become of age and took over Boller as a married man, she could now withdraw to the rich Skt. Hans kloster, which her husband had achieved in 1575. She re-created it into Stjernholm, a name she decided herself.

However she was still active and energetic, and she became a difficult and expensive neighbour of the citizens of Horsens town. They probably felt relieved, when she died in 1613 and was brought from Horsens to the family burial in Uth church. Her last years were troublesome. Her son Frederik was in 1599 given a hard punishment for his relationship to Rigborg Brockenhuus and died three years later in exile. Also Otte Christoffer Rosenkrantz was a troublemaker. His richness turned completely his head, he spent money for splendour and glory, and he was involved in raising loans at high interests and lost great sums. He contracted debts, and raised loans and contracted debts etc. etc...... When he died was only Boller left from his large and rich estate, and his debts were 100.000 rigsdaler, an enormous sum at that time. His finansial transactions were a pathetic counter-example of his father and mother's strong, deserving administration.

The ill-treated Boller manor was still in danger. The creditors from Holstein threatened to take the estate, and Otte Christoffer's heirs, the son Holger and three daughters, were in such a difficult position that they sold the estate in 1621 to fru Ellen Marsvin, and at the same time they came under some administration in order to secure that the interests of the debts were paid with the interests of the purchase price. This was a painful getting through. Both Boller and Rosenvold had vanished from the ownership of the family Rosenkrantz only eight years after the death of the rich Karen Gyldenstierne, and the new owner, who was a widow after Ludvig Munk of Nørlund (+1602), could join an imposant estate to her other considerable properties.

She did not own Boller and Rosenvold for many years, and she had to give it up under sad circumstances, caused by her own flesh and blood. The break between her daughter, Kirsten Munk and Christian IV caused among other things that the king after in vain having asked for Boller and Rosenvold commanded Ellen Marsvin "without any trouble" to give the estates to her daughter. Nothing is known why the king had disposal of the estates, as if he was the owner; perhaps had he given Ellen Marsvin money to buy Boller and Rosenvold for her daughter instead of another promise about a vasalry, but the order of cession was from 1. May 1630. Ellen Marsvin had to follow order, but tried to rescue as much as possible for herself, she took both the large furniture and movables, and broke down from the building what she could bring with her.

Chr. IV wanted in this way to stop his mistress Kirsten Munk from making trouble. When she left the king in January 1630 she went from one family to another in order to intrigate; the king intervened and put a stop to it by the mentioned arrangement, and he also referred to that it was harmful to their children that she behaved like this. Furthermore he had given her the promised vasalry, and on 13. April Kirsten Munk arrrived at Boller castle. The day after her arrival she wrote to bishop Morten Madsen in Århus, who had been a teacher for her children, that God had really to help her, for there was a terrible mess and filth at Boller, and she asked him to bring duvets and sheets, for there were only a "little to eat and nothing to sleep on". But it seems she soon got things into shape in her forced residence, for the king later wrote that "she is sitting at Boller and Rosenvold like a mighty princess".

She was not allowed to leave the two manors, but partly was the king's ban later relieved, and partly she went on various travels without permission, which meant house arrest for her at Boller under close guard. After some strange interrogations of her about her relationships to the king and the Rheingraf she was in 1635 locked up at Stjernholm for several months. Her stay on a ship at Horsens was just as much against her will, when she had to flee from the Swedes, who were said to have stolen some of her possessions at Boller.

From the Japanese garden

From the fuchsia garden and the rose garden

The Japanese garden and the old oak tree.

From the rose garden

The ownership of the large estate, which Kirsten Munk had inherited from her mother, made her able to lead a carefree life economically. As a landowner she bought much land for the Boller-estate and established a hospital at Uth church, where the maintenance was ever since paid from Boller, and in 1635 she founded a capital for Horsens kloster church. She was told to be a pious and devout woman and a good landlady for her staff. In 1658 she had a stroke and sent for her favorite daughter Leonore Christine, who came to Boller, but she was not with her mother, when she died shortly after. Her body was brought to Sct. Knud's church in Odense.

Five years after Kirsten Munk's death Boller was still in the ownership of her heirs, but was then laid out to the important businessmen Albert Baltzer Berns and Leonhard Marselis as a payment for debts of her late son grev Valdemar Christian. In 1664 it went to Mogens Friis of Favrskov and Frijsenborg. In 1844 it came under this county, while the manor Rosenvold already in 1660 was out of its 100-year old connection to Boller by a sale to gehejmeråd, stiftamtmand Henrik Rantzau. In the owner-community with Frijsenborg Boller became a part of the county and lost its independent mark. Christine Sophie Reventlow, a widow after the county's second owner Niels Friis, had Boller and Møgelkær as a life-ownership. Its third owner Christian Friis decided in 1760 that the two manors had to be a dower house for man and woman, but they had to be administered from Frijsenborg.

Among later owners were i.e. greve Jens Christian Carl Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs, who in 1849 took up residence at Boller after having given the northern part of the county to his son greve Christian Emil, who withdrew in 1882 to Boller, where he died in 1896. After this the manor had no permanent resident, and the main building was only used in huntings and other short visits from the county-owner and his family. After the county's transfer to free property in 1920 and lensgreve Mogens Friis' death in 1923 Boller was laid out with land and forests to his daughter lensgrevinde Agnes Louise Bernstorff-Gyldensteen. She sold the estate in 1930 to the Danish state.

The forests and the park were now "Boller Statsskovdistrikt", and the main parcel was sold to proprietær ("large farmer") Hans P. Andreasen. The rest of the land was outparcelled into small-holders. After a fire in 1937 the main parcel was also outparcelled into small-holders. The main building was sold by the state in 1930 to Sygekasserne (sick-benefit associations) in Horsens, Kolding and Skanderborg, an the castle was changed into a convalescense-home. The Sygekasserne sold in 1965 Boller castle to Horsens kommune (municipality).

The main building of Boller stands at its castle bank, surrounded by broad moats, but it is not marked by the first strong medieval castle-building or by the later fine castle or palace, but is more like a common manor, firmly plant upon the ground. The northern wing is the earliest. In its original look the large house had two storeys; there are no traces of towers. In the middle of the bottom storey is a hall, where the supporting pillars partly derive from a Romanesque church, and rests of Romanesque building-parts are found elsewhere in the main building. According to materials, walls and constructions the wing is late Gothic, maybe from ab. 1550 and maybe built by Holger Rosenkrantz. The materials from Sejet church was not only used at Uth church, but also at Boller.

On the eastern wing is an inscription, where Holger Rosenkrantz' widow fru Karen Gyldenstierne announces that she built this house in 1588. On both sides of the pillar-hall are Renaissance-vaults, and the eastern gable room is furnished into a kitchen with a monumental-chimney, one of the finest kitchen-rooms in any Danish manor. The two other wings are in their present look from the 18th century. During time they had become so dilapidated that they were rebuilt as new brick-built houses in 1759 with new, modern rooms. The entrance gate is at the west wing. The garden is very large and pretty. Among the sights worth seeing is a several centuries old oak. A lime tree was so big that Christian VIII, who in 1844 resided at Boller, is said to have set the table for 180 persons below the tree. It has now been cut down.

Source: Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 15, Fra Århus til Kolding, 1967, "Boller" by museumsinspektør P. Westergård.

photo Boller slot 2002/2008: grethe bachmann