Thursday, October 16, 2014

Andst church/ Andst kirke, Andst herred, Ribe amt

Andst church, wikipedia.
Andst church is a parish church situated about seven km west of Kolding. The church lies high upon a hill in the middle of the village Store Andst. It is an ashlar building from the last decades of the 1100s, but about 1140 the church was still a wooden church. In the late Middle Ages was added a porch. Andst was through centuries a permanent  station for travellers between Kolding and Ribe. In 1588 king Frederik II made this travel and took a rest in the vicarage. He ordered his vasal at Koldinghus, Caspar Markdanner to equip Andst church with a tower, since the church was situated at the beaten track  - and in 1592 the tower was built with the special onion spire. It was once a stilt tower with openings in the ground floor, but they were bricked up in the 1600s or 1700s. On the northside of the tower are still seen traces from the brickwork.

Andst parish is mentioned for the first time in 1280, when Erik Nielsen deeded estates in Andst herred to the bishop of Ribe as a compensation for the church taxes he had kept for himself. The parish priests in Andst are mentioned since 1471, the vicarage of Andst was placed in Gamst village, where the priest lived already in 1471. The Danish Crown had during the Middle Ages large estates in the parish.

Altarpiece, wikipedia
Many details in the early building section point to Ribe cathedral as a  role model.  According to the Bishop-Chronicle it seems that Andst church was built almost contemporary to Ribe cathedral, which was a model for the village churches in Ribe bishopric. Several of the Jutland granite churches have got their pillar portals under the influence from the cathedral in Ribe. The apse is special by its unusually strong curve which forms more than half  a circle. The nave has kept its small Romanesque windows in the northside.  The very pretty south portal with four pillars has a thympanum with a relief of Christ between Peter and Paul. A similar thympanum is seen  in Skanderup and Vamdrup church. (Jutland)  In the northside of the choir is s priest-door.

Stone in porch wall, wikipedia
In the outer wall of the porch is a Romanesque gravestone which is divided in two fields. In the upper field stand a man and a woman in tender embrace and in the lower field is a cow. The interpretation is not clear, but it is clear that the stone mason must be the same who made the south portal. The portraits are considered to be a married couple who were founders of the church, and the cow was the only possession left of their fortune, when the church building had finished. 

The ceiling of choir and nave is a flat cassette-ceiling decorated with grape clusters. It was set up in 1605 and later renewed into its original look. Romanesque frescoes from the beginning of the church building were found in 1977,  but their condition was bad and they  were washed over.
The inside walls are whitewashed, the floor has small black and yellow tiles, which replaced a brick floor in the 1880s. Main restoration in 1926. The tower had been a fuel room, but was connected to the nave. Restoration in 1977-78.

Altar foto 2003: gb

The bricked and whitewashed  communion table stands freely in the middle of the apse curve. In the table was in 1844 found a leaden reliquary, containing the piece of a bone and some silk. It is now at the National Museum. The three-winged altarpiece is an exciting work, made ab. 1510. It consists of a mid-cupboard with a lively carved display of biblical figures and with two hinged wings with figures of the apostles. Behind the altar stood a blood-stained and leather upholstered chair where a person was either killed or died from fear.

Interior, foto wikipedia.

The Romanesque baptismal font is a socalled arcade font with 10 fields with each a figure. One of the figures is an ostrich, most probably the earliest Danish display of this bird. The richly carved pulpit from 1602 with Latin text pays tribute to  the towerbuilder and benefactor, the king's vasal at Koldinghus Caspar Markdanner. The text was written by the parish priest Jon Jensen Kolding who in 1591 wrote the first known topography of the Danish kingdom.

granite font, wikipedia




Various artifacts in the church:
Silver: Chalice 1714 given by Levetzow of Bygholm, dish from 1925, a set: chalice, dish, wafer box given by parish priest Jens Andersen Heug, ab. 1708, a spoon 1897, a wafer box, 1897;  altar candelabres given by Jon Jensen Kolding 1589 (silver?).

Altar jar ( probably baptismal) in pewter 1862; baptismal dish, brass, 1550, given to the church in 1775, baptismal jar, brass, 1891; a porcelain dish, Royal Copenhagen 1926; crucifix with biscuit figure of Christ, behind altar;

Money tablet for collecting money for Helsingør hospital ab. 1600. An ironbound moneyblock, two brass money boxes, ironbound medieval door wing, , a portrait of parish priest A Richter + 1712, priest lists on a tablet, the pulpit repainted 1602 and with coat of armors and initials of Caspar Markdanner and parish priest Jon Jensen Kolding upon the contemporary sounding board; panels along the walls of the nave, to the west a gallery

Andst church, Google Earth
The  church yard is surrounded by granite boulder dikes and beech hedges. Among the granite boulders are several Romanesque ashlars which originate from the west gable. The main entrance of the church yard is a port with two lattice gates. Outside the dike are large chestnut trees to the south and west. Inside the eastern dike are oaks and around the church Swedish whitebeam. An unreadable gravestone in the church yard is said to be for a workman who fell down from the church roof.

Source, Danmarks kirker, Nationalmuseet.

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Sjørring church/ Sjørring kirke, Hundborg herred, Thisted amt.

Sjørring church was probably built by the king, which explains its special position in the district of Thy. Its  important connection  is the big castle bank Sjørring Volde close by, one of the biggest and strangest castle banks  in Denmark  - the rests of a strong medieval royal castle. The old name "Syrændæ" is mentioned as an estate of the Crown in Valdemars Jordebog. The castle was from the 1000s - and there was probably a wooden church in Sjørring at the same time. The present Romanesque church has replaced the wooden church in the 1100s.

In about 1630 and 1666 the church was still owned by the Crown, but in April 1699 it was deeded to fru Cornelia Bickers of Vestervig. It was later owned by the family Steenstrup from 1775. In April 1918 it was transferred to freehold.

The pretty Romanesque church lies upon a hillside about 300 meters northeast of Sjørring Volde. The terrain falls down from the building from all sides. The church was one of Thy's most esteemed churches, and the names of the hills nearby, like Galgehøj and Tingbakken indicate that the Thing of Hundborg Herred was held here.

Sjørring church/wikipedia
Sjørring church is the biggest and richest decorated church in Hundborg Herred, but it is strongly marked by restorations in 1875 and 1890. The church has Romanesque apse, choir and nave, all built in pretty carved ashlars upon a superbly done double plinth. Two very pretty pillar portals were partly renewed in 1875 and 1890, but they are still the only pillar portals in Thy. At the bricked-up south door stands a magnificent portal with double free-standing columns with richly profiled bases and capitals with animal- and flower decorations. The north portal in the porch has two columns formed as wooden columns, probably meant to be copies from the original wooden church.

In the south wall of the choir is a 98cm broad priest-door with a strange lintel. The north window of the choir is the best preserved of the original windows. In the north wall of the nave are three original windows. The windows have monolith lintels. There are several ashlars on the wall with stone mason-fields, also on the walls inside. The church room has flat, beamed ceilings and whitewashed walls, the triumph wall stands with the original  pretty ashlars, side altar niches and corbels. Some Romanesque frescoes were discovered in 1890, and some in1928 but no frescoes have been restored.

About 1500 a late Gothic tower and porch were built. The tower was demolished before 1769, in which year the church was mentioned as towerless ("kullet"). The present tower was built in 1929. At the building of the new tower the rests of a spiral staircase was found. The porch is built in yellow bricks, it has a cross vault. Both tower and porch are whitewashed. The roof of the porch is tiled, the rest of the church has lead roof.

The church yard is surrounded by granite boulder dikes. In the 1870s was still a groove called Pestkulen (the plague pit), which was said to origin from the time of the Black Death. This place was avoided and not used as a burial site.

Romanesque font/gb

The altarpiece is late Renaissance from 1640 with profiled frames and a middle field flanked by Corinthic pillars, in the middle field a dark double-painting from the same time. The pulpit has biblical reliefs. It is dated 1639. The panels in the choir are the original organ-gallery from the beginning of the 1600s. The panels were placed here after the building of the tower in 1929. The Romanesque granite font is a typical Thybo-font in two parts with a slightly profiled plinth and a round-stick at the foot of the basin. A beautiful high Gothic crucifix is from about 1350.  Silver chalice from 1739 by Jens Kjeldsen Sommerfeldt in Aalborg; sygekalk (silver chalice for the sick) from 1775 by P. Knudsen Lund, Aalborg;  silver candelabres from 1608. 

Two medieval wooden figures in Sjørring church. .
The female figure is late Gothic It might origin from an earlier altarpiece. It reminds about a figure in a Gothic altar cupboard in Hillerslev church. In a photo from Danmarks Kirker from 1936 it is seen that the figures have been placed together with the crucifix in the church, as if they were Mary and John. The male figure is probably carved by another carver. It has a rougher face and very big hands, but at the same time it has been carved in order to be similar to the female figure. Maybe the female figure was used at the side of the crucifix after the reformation, and then they needed a figure of John, and a new was carved.


Bishop's Grave/gb
The Bishop's Grave.
The socalled Bishop's Grave south of the apse consists of three  granite memorials. It is one of Denmarks most potent Romanesque grave memorials, dated to the end of the 1100s. It is probably only the middle stone which lies in its original place. Upon the north prism stone is a pretty carved relief of a bishop's figure, but although it is called a bishop's grave it is proably not the burial of a bishop at all, but it is sooner a figure of Sct Nicolas of Myra.  On the opposite is another pretty stone with a high relief of an angel, while the other  prism stone has no reliefs, but by both stones stand typical gable stones with Romanesque crosses in high relief.

Several traditions are connected to this burial place. According to a legend it is the grave of an English bishop who was ship-wrecked at the west coast of Jutland. Another tradition says that bishop Mogens of Vestervig was buried here after he in vain had fought for bringing his bishopric to Thy. The third theory is that it was the first bishop of Børglum, Sølves/Silvester's grave.

Sjørring Volde left, the church right/ Google Earth

Sjørring Volde
In connection to a visit in the church it is a good idea to visit the castle bank Sjørring Volde.  From the church yard is a fine view across the magnificent landscape, which was a waterway in the Middle Ages. The royal castle bank by the lake shore was surrounded by water on all four sides and with the king's road through Thy east of the plan. The big fortification is a so-called Motte-Bailey plan, consisting of a front castle with the civil residenses, and behind double moats the fortification itself, which was a wooden tower upon a steep earth bank. The type is known already from the 1000s, shown on the Bayeux tapestry. 

Source: Danmarks Kirker Thisted amt ; Politikens bog om Danmarks Kirker, Niels Peter Stilling 2000.

Sunday, June 15, 2014

Gunderup church/ Gunderup kirke, Fleskum herred, Aalborg amt.

Gunderup church, ( the name in 1355 Gundorp), lies 13 km south of Aalborg. It is a large building with Romanesque choir and nave and late Gothic additions, among others a chapel with frescoes from the beginning of the 1500s. The church lies desolate in Gunderup village. It was by people called Himmerland's cathedral, both because of its size, but also because of its central situation as a crossroad-church in a large parish. The Romanesque choir and nave are built in granite ashlars above a bevelled plinth. Both doors are kept, the south door is bricked, the north door still in use. The north door has profiled corbels, it is curved outside and straight edged finish inside, in the treshold stone is carved a cross. In the southwall of the choir is a bricked door with a heavy rundstav (round stick) which in the bottom rests profiled bell-like bases. In the south wall of the church is an ashlar with a hand holding a key, probably a symbol of Sanct Peter. At the south side of the nave is a cross arms-chapel,  a sacristy to the north, tower and porch are built in the late Gothic period.


In the porch are two runestones with inscriptions:

a) Toke rejste disse stene og gjorde disse kumler efter sin måg Api en velbyrdig thegn og sin moder Tove. De ligger begge i denne høj. Api undte Toke sit gods efter sig. (" Toke raised these stones and made these memorials after his stepfather Api, a noble-born man (thegn) and his mother Tove.They both lie in this hill. Api gave his goods to Toke.") The hill was demolished in the 1700s, but the stone was saved by Gunderup's parish priest.

 b) "Østen satte denne sten efter sin fader Asulv". ("Østen raised this stone after his father Asulv."
This other stone is  probably from Sweden according to several Swedish runes in the short inscription. It is dated to the 800s.

The building was restored in 1914.

The high choir arch is kept with profiled corbel bands and a corniche plint. In the late Gothic period the choir and nave got a cross vault. Between nave and south chapel are two point-arched arcades. The stairs to the pulpit are built through the arcade pillar. The altarpiece is a Lutheranian triptychon from 1537-38 and the earliest Lutheranian altarpiece in Denmark. The pulpit is also a great rarity . It is from the 1790s and one of few classical pulpits in Denmark.

Unique lion font.
The Romanesque granite font has double lions with intertwined tails upon the basin. It is of the Himmerland-Mariager type. Together with the font in Stenild church at Hobro the font in Gunderup is the most magnificent of its kind. 

In 1930 frescoes were uncovered from the late Gothic period in the south chapel. Upon the arcade pillar is Mary seen in solgissel, (sunbeams) in the curve is Christoffer. In the vaults are other biblical motifs. The frescoes were conserved by E. Lind. Some coat of arms for Rod and Vårst were not preserved. The frescoes are dated ab. 1500, the style is mannered and the composition is messy.

photo: Google earth and wikipedia. 

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Tyrsted church/ Tyrsted kirke, Vejle amt

photo: Google Earth

Tyrsted kirke, Hatting herred, Vejle amt.

Tyrsted church lies about 300 meter south of Tyrsted village - in 65 meter's height  upon a big slope which goes down to Horsens Fjord. The church was always solely situated and visible in the landscape. The village is now urban area, but the church has kept its free location  - and from the church yard is still a view of the landscape. The church yard is surrounded by double, grassy granite boulder dikes. The old main entrance is a driving gate to the east. The present entrance is a port with a gate from ab. 1900, closed by iron grating wings between tiled pillars in red bricks.

The church was heavily restored in 1866 and later in the 1800s. Later changes and additions are all in monk bricks. A cornice of yellow bricks has been added under the roof which was raised in 1866. Tyrsted church was restored again in 1994. The floors in the church are square with yellow and grey tiles from 1866-67, in the choir they were re-newed in 1994 with pink tiles. The roof is tiled, except the choir has a leaden roof . The church was in 1986 given a colour scheme when the furnishings became a green background colour, supplemented with red, black, white and a little blue.

The church walls are raised upon a low, but strongly eroded plinth in calcareous tufa, which is visible to the north and east, but else is covered by the terrain. The northdoor is engulfed in a large round-arched opening, the bricked southdoor is only vaguely traceable under the westernest window of the nave.

The church is a Romanesque building of calcareous tufa, consisting of choir and nave. The masonry is rather disturbed, original details are the round-arched windows which have stood since 1903 as exterior niches.

Around 1500s a tower was added and a porch in the north, and at the same time vaulting was built in the choir and the nave. In the choir is one and in the nave three cross vaults.

The heavy tower is almost as broad as the church, it has four storeys -  the middle storey is divided in two - the old masonry is kept to the north, partly also to the east, while the other facades are face-walled with monk bricks in 1866-67. The tower room is conncected to the church in a  broad pointed arcade. There is access to the upper storeys via a staircase in the northern wall .
The porch has in the gable kept parts of a late Gothic glare decoration. In the porch is walled-in a tombstone for the pilgrim Peter Kæller (the 1300s) -  and the church is by many used as the start of a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostella. It is possible to visit the church in the day hours - or else by appointment with the church office. The pilgrim stone is Gotland limestone - and it has a beautifully carved figure of the pilgrim Peter Kæller. .

The only thing contemporary with the building is the simple Romanesque granite font. A south German baptismal dish is  from ab. 1550, but only came to the church after 1700. The altar candlesticks were donated in 1693 by Anna Maria von Offenberg, countess of Frijsenborg. Almost all remaining furnishings came with a radical restoration around 1866-67. This applies to the neo-Gothic altarpiece, the altar rail, a crucifix, the pews and the hymn boards. The altar plate from 1911 was supplied by Rasmus Jensen, Horsens and bears the donor's inscription of the church-owner, count Mogens Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs.

A wafer with the mark Sterling from 1986. An armchair for the priest from 1886 in the choir. Three chandeliers from 1913 in Baroque style 1913.

A church bell, cast 1895 by Jørgen Stallknecht, Horsens. A bell from 1425-50 has casting mark for N. Eskildsen. It is now in the National  Museum.

Gravestone ab. 1620 for Rasmus Hansøn, priest and parson, with his dear wife Karen Iensdatter.
Some cast iron crosses in the church yard from the 1700-1800s. 

 Source: Danmarks Kirker, National Museum.

Friday, May 09, 2014

Gangsted church/ Gangsted kirke, Voer herred, Aarhus amt.


West of the village lies Gangsted church in a low rise in a highplaced open agricultural land in the central section of Voer herred. The churchyard is surrounded by a granite boulder dike. In the western side of the churchyard is a burial chamber from 1948. Earlier was a church barn northwest of the tower. 

Gangsted church has a Romanesque choir and nave. It is built in  rough-carved granite ashlars upon a bevelled plinth. Inside the church are fieldstone-walls and a few ashlars in the west-end of the nave. The north door and some windows are bricked, and outside the south door was in the Middle Ages built a porch in granite and half-timber. A bricked bench is kept in the room of the porch.

Both doors have very impressive rectangular lintels. One early window is kept in the north side of the choir and another re-opened in 1900. At the gable of the porch is a lintel in grey-red granite. The tower is Late Gothic in monk bricks and re-used granite ashlars, and it has a  pyramid roof and a weather vane from 1782  (1893?)with initials I S C M I.  The tower had originally stepped gables north-south. The northwest corner of the tower rests upon a large fieldstone with marks after the stonemason's chisel.

Inside the church has the nave a flat ceiling, and the choir and tower are overvaulted since the Late Gothic period.The church had main reparations in 1794,1807, 1832 and a large restoration in the middle of the 1980s. The floor got black-greywhite tiles in 1907. In 1987-88 were found fragments of frescoes made after the Middle Ages (black drapery) In 1932 a glass painting was made in the west of the tower room.

The altarpiece is Baroque ab. 1600, a carved work, given by Gedske Lucasdatter. A lightning in the church 1894 damaged the altarpiece which got a new painting in the big field in 1895, a copy of Carl Bloch's "Julenat" (Christmas Night). The pulpit is new, from ab. 1800 in oak and with painted figures, the granite font is Romanesque with  lion figures and foliage. (Horsens-type).

Parking place reserved the church singer and the priest.
 A brass money box, a bell from 1837 cast by Carl Frederik Weiss, Horsens   A memory tablet from 1695 with the names Bertel Fædder, Laurits Friis and their wife Gedske Lucasdatter (+ 1695). A memory tablet over 2 killed soldiers from 1864. A coffin crucifix from 1650-1700.  3 cast iron crosses from 1854 in church yard. .

Tyrrestrup see blog:  Søvind church , owner today: Jens Harder

 source: Danmarks Kirker. National Museet.

photo: grethe bachmann 
+ Google Earth.

Thursday, March 13, 2014

Kousted church/ Kousted kirke, Nørhald herred, Randers amt.

The south door


Kousted church has a nave and a choir from the Romanesque period in granite ashlars upon a bevelled plinth, a tower to the west and a porch to the south. The granite choir arch and several windows to the north are kept. The south door inside the porch has a tympanum with a ribbon bow and cubic Capitals. The north door is bricked up. The nave and choir got vaults in the late Middle Ages and the tower was built in granite ashlars in the same period like the porch, which is in bricks. The tower room is not connected to the nave. In the east wall of the porch is a holy water vessel in a niche, (it was originally a corn-crushing stone from prehistoric time)

Upon the wall of the northside of the church is the relief of a lion turning upside-down. 

The niche


The altarpiece is new, a pretty patchworck. The pulpit is Renaissance (has been restored. ). A granite font with lion figures. In the porch tombstones for the priests Jens Brasch (+ 1654), and P. Brasch (+ 1683), a lesser stone for the first mentioned and a tombstone from early Middle Ages with cross and foliage.

The klingpung is a purse which was used for collection of money during church service.
The yellow house is an old school building. 

There was probably a manor in the parish called Stensgaard, its situation is still traceable in the meadow south of Kousted village, the name Stensgaard is also kept for an old farm in the village.

There is no information about prehistorics in the parish,

source: Runeberg / 1898-1906/ Kongeriget Danmark/ J.Trap/ 3 udg. 4 bd./ Hjørring, Thisted, Aalborg, Viborg , Randers Amter. 

photo: GB

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Vester church/ Vester kirke, Nørvang herred, Vejle amt.

Vester church, photo gb
Vester church has a Romanesque choir and nave with a tower to the west from 1917. The Romanesque building is in granite ashlars and raw boulders upon a beveled-edge plinth - and from original details is the north door, which is out-bricked with a modern window and a plastered lintel, while the south door, which was bricked-up in 1917, is vaguely visible. The north side has kept its low, rather highly placed round-arched windows, one upon the choir, two upon the nave,while the east window of the choir is  bricked-up in the lighting. The round choir arch stands inside with simple framestone, and both nave and choir have beamed ceilings. In 1913 was at the west end of the building built a small tower with glare-decorated walls and a pyramid roof. The bottom room functions as a front hall,  and a porch at the southside of the nave was removed. The church is whitewashed on the south and east side, upon the north side only the upper third of the walls is whitewashed. The church has a modern tiled roof.

Interior: The altarpiece is a painting from ab. 1915 by J.Skovgaard. A chalice from ab. 1850 with stamp: Lind (Horsens). An oval wafer box, made by J.R. Hofgrefe, Vejle. Balustershaped ore candelabres. ab. 1625. Very little, well carved late Gothic choir arch crucifix. A Romanesque granite font, a rather primitive work with vaguely sketched sepals and double rope sticks upon the basin. The foot is shaped like a cubic capital. A south German dish ab. 1550-75. A pulpit in Art Noveau was ab. 1915 given by Niels Jensen and wife, Højby. The earlier pulpit, a simple joinery from the beginning of the 1800s, lies upon the attic. ( 1964) Bell 1833, I.C and H.Gamst.

Rørbæk Hovedgaard, 2009,

photo: gb.
Rørbæk Per Marqvardsen in Rørbæk is mentioned 1487 and 1490, but he was probably not nobility; in 1542 and 1549 R. belonged to Hans Johansen (Lindenov) of Fovslet (+ 1568), in 1561 to his brother  Anders Hansen (Lindenov)( + 1562) and thereafter to A.H.'s daughter Else Lindenov (+ 1613), m. to Absalon Gøye  (+ 1602); her heirs took in common over her estate, but wanted an exchange in 1621; latest from 1630 the farm belonged to Erik Bille of Kærsgård , after whose death 1641 there was a feud about the inheritance.  In 1642 R. belonged to Levin Bülow (+ childless 1657), then to Mogens Høegh (Banner)( + 1659), whereafter it was inherited by Valdemar Skram of Todbøl and Otte Krafse of Egholm. The last mentioned's half came before 1662 to Steffen Rohde's heirs, who in 1667 outbought Valdemar Skram. In 1713 R. was on an auction after Franz Rohde (+ same year) sold to lieutenant Sejer Sejersen  (+ 1715), from whom it came to his brother captain-lieutenant Johan Jakob Sejer (+ 1727) .
Later owners: Peder Simonsen Schiønning, N. Karstoft, Jens Jørgen Bredal of Hammergård, Jean de Trappaud, Arnt Peter Engwari at Havhus, Johan Jakob Sejer, Christen Christensen in Egholm Mill, Søren and Anders Holst, Nikolaj C. Sveistrup, N.A.J. Thyregod, Inger Eriksdatter , J.N. Thyregod, Jakob Helms, Jens Nielsen, Den jyske kreditforening, Iver Hansen Nielsen, Niels Jensen. J. Jensen, H. Ørnsholt Jensen ( in 1964).

Rørbæk Hovedgaard at present: 
Niels Jensen and his descendants are those who have owned Rørbæk for the longest period, from 1902-1991, almost 100 years. In 1991 Niels Jensens descendants sold the farm to Aage V. Jensens Fond, who in 2002 sold Rørbæk Hovedgaard to the family Olesen.

Risager was in 1542 owned by Birgitte Rostrup, in 1574 by her brother's son Hans Rostrup, in 1589 by Bertel Holck of Højgård, in 1606 probably by Karen Viffert, widow after Timme Rosenkrantz of Rydhave. In 1633 Abel Bryske sold it to Christoffer Gersdorff. In 1662 it was owned by Karen Dyre of Knivholt, who in 1666 deeded it with mill and some estate to her son-in-law Jochum Nordmand of Dubnitz, whose wife Birgitte Arenfeldt still in 1677 is mentioned of R., although it in 1675 by Claus Dyre of Sindinggård was deeded to Anders Rohde of Bajlumgård; in 1714 Albert Sejer's widow died at R. and in 1716 Johan Jakob Sejer of Rørbæk lived here; in 1773 R. was a peasant-farm under Rørbæk.

Rørbæk sø 2009, photo: gb

In the lake of Rørbæk sø, Kulsø and Nedersø is a good stock of pike and bream. At Rørbæk sø is a put and take.

Castle bank ? Upon a leveled eastern end of a bank, originally surrounded by water near the southside of Rørbæk sø, a little northeast of Rørbæk, the farm's earlier place is pointed out. Here is seen a cellar room of raw granite boulder , ab. 13 x 5 m. On this place and upon the small plateau on the nearby land are seen brick pieces. A plank bridge, from which poles were removed in the 1920s, led across the now dried part of the lake to the solid land,  where also were brick pieces upon a small plateau.

By Rørbæk was a farm Stovgård (1543 Stofvegaard).   

Listed prehistorics: 18 hills, of which Kongenshøj at Vesterlund is large, but somewhat digged.
Demolished or destroyed: 74 hills. 

At Vester mølle (mill) is a settlement from Gudenåkulturen.

Names from the Middle Ages  and 1600s: Vester Kirke (1291 Wæstærth); Vesterlund (1419 Vester Lundt); Lindet (1461 Lindued); Skovsbøl (1456 Skousbøll); Risager (1291 Wæstær Risæ, 1638 Risagger); Rørbæk (1471 Rørbech, 1487 Rørbæk); Vester Mølle (1664 Vester Mølle)

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.
photo 2009: grethe bachmann

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Taulov Church/ Taulov kirke, Elbo herred, Vejle amt.

Taulov church, Google earth.
Taulov Church
The large whitewashed church in Taulov has a Romanesque choir and nave with a late Gothic tower to the west  and a porch to the south . At the east side of the choir is a strange, almost circular burial chapel from 1581. The Romanesque building is built in granite ashlars upon a double plinth, incomplete attic above a beveled edge. The southdoor, which is in use, has two columns, one octagonal with cubic caspitals and bases. Upon one corbel is a primitive lion-relief and upon the base of the opposite column is a figure and a male head . The north door is bricked-up. In the north wall of the nave is a round-arched window, bricked up in the wall run - and in the Koldinghus Museum is a window lintel with a warrior, carrying a shield and a sword. An ashlar with a male head is inserted in a stone bench in the porch. The choir and nave have flat-plastered ceilings, the choir has a simple stuccato decoration. In the late Gothic period the heavy tower was built, which crossvaulted bottom room opens towards the nave in a round tower arch. It has on the north side a bricked-up flatcurved opening from free stairs to the middle storey. The upper section with stepped gables, east-west, is very re-bricked (like in 1863 and 1868) when the other part of the building got its cornices, and in 1950. The porch is also a late Gothic addition in yellow monk bricks. The stepped gable has a glare decoration with six round-arched high-glares flanked by circular glares and above some beveled brick-shifts. The porch has tiled roofs like the choir, nave and tower. In 1581 jomfru Berete Rosenkramtz let the strange, almost circular burial chapel build east of the choir. It is built in red monk bricks upon a beveled edge plinth in granite ashlars and has a high cone roof with lead thatching. The room is inside with a cross vault. Upon the east side are two square stones with Berete Rosenkrantz' paternal and maternal coat of arms. The chapel is now furnished as a priest room (source 1964), but earlier while it was a burial chapel, it was divided from the choir by a wrought iron gate from 1758.

Taulov church, Google earth.

The communion table is covered in a marble-painted panel from ab. 1590. The altarpiece is a carved work in bruskbarok (cartilage Baroque) from 1683, now completely cleansed. In a niche in the main field is inserted a plaster copy of Thorvaldsen's Christ-figure. Heavy baluster-shaped candelabres, given 1636 by Hans Jensen in Holum. Large, well-carved choir-arch crucifix from the beginning of the 1500s. A Romanesque granite font with arcade-decorations upon the basin. Very worn south German dish, ab, 1575. A pulpit from the same time and by the same craftsman as the altarpiece with Evangelist figures after Thorvaldsen. It was repaired 1889. A fourmaster ship from present time "Queen Margaret". Bell 1876 P. Meilstrup. The older bell was by Clavs v. Dam 1643.
Epitaph for F.C. Bredahl, Søholm, put up 1729. Gravestone 1581 for Sidsel Rosenkrantz ( +1557),and jomfru Berete Rosenkrantz, a figure stone with widow and jomfru. A stone for the first Lutheranian priest in the parish, Bertil Iversen was in 1914 given to the Thaulow Museum at Norsk Folkemuseum in Oslo.

Søholm belonged to Ribe bishopric, but came during the reformation to the Crown, in 1547 it was endowed to Else Thott, widow after Claus Krummedige. After her death in 1550 S. was laid under Koldinghus and was inhabited before 1577 by herredsfoged Claus Hønborg, whose wife 1588 who was instructed to keep order in the king's chamber and see to that he got the supplies he was used to.  In 1662 the farm was desolate, in 1766 the Crown sold S. to Iver Hansen.  

Hønborg (1369 Hønæborigh,1429 Hønburgh) was earlier a royal castle. Known vasals were: Peder Iversen Lykke 1369; Gotschalck? Skarpenberg 1377; hr Folmer Mortensen (Gyrstinge) 1445; Peder Brockenhuus 1487; hr. Claus Krummedige 1493; hr Thomas Nielsen (Lange) m. to the previous' widow, 1504 and 1520, his stepson hr Erik Krummedige (+ 1541) and his widow Sidsel Rosenkrantz (+ 1557), whereafter the estate was withdrawn and laid under Koldinghus vasalry. It was from Hønborg Christian II - after having  received the aristocracy's resignation Letter - let himself ferry to Middeelfart several times. The castle was destroyed by the peasant during the grevefejden (civil war) and again during the Thirty Year's War by Wallenstein's troups.

Skærbæk Marina and Skærbækværket(background)
Skærbækværket was built 1946-50. Via Elsam it cooperates with 5 other værker in Jutland and Fyn and with Germany and Sweden.

In 1629 Chr IV had plans about moving to Kolding town and castle.

Northwest of Skærbæk village was a sacred spring Korskilde or Rands kilde.   

At Gudsø were battles in 1849 when the Danes after an energetic fight against a superior enemy withdrew to Fredericia.

At Taulov station was in 1946 raised a memorial for 3 freedom fighters: E. Månsson, K.G.Kolding and H. Jacobsen, executed by the Germans in 1945. In Skærbæk was in 1955 raised a memorial for 3 drowned fishermen.

The old timbered vicarage in Taulov from 1840 was broken down in 1963, the stable- building was rebuilt at the Open Air Museum, Sorgenfri. (Zealand)

Towards Lillebælt upon a meadowland lies between high banks the significant medieval Hakenør Voldsted  (Hønborg slot), an almost square castle bank with round corners and steep banks. The castle bank was surrounded by a ring moat with an outer dam. Both sections are very leveled,  probably with earth from the bank, which sides seem cut off. The top surface was cultivated even in the 20th century. Upon the castle bank are brick pieces, also upon the landtongue stretching out towards the bank are brick pieces. Here was probably a building in addition to the castle itself. Upon the Koldinghus Museum and the National Museum are kept several pieces findings from the castle bank.

At Hønborg castle bank were in 1858-1910 found 81 spread coins, earliest from Erik Klipping; most of the coins from Erik of Pommern's time.

Taulov, landscape, Google earth.
The village Taulov Nebel (1569 Tavlo Nøbel) grew together with Taulow Stationsby, and the name is not used anymore.

Listed prehistorics: four hills, two in Tårup skov, one hill west of Tårup ir rather big but pre-digged.

Demolhsed or Destroyed: 67 hills,of which most in the southern half of the parish, In 1638 is mentioned a stone-encircled giant grave in Børup skov.

Names from the Middle Ages and 1600s: Taulov (1330 Taflygh, 1396 Tafloghe); Skærbæk (1436 Skerbek); Tårup (1479 Torduph, 1532 Tordop); Børup (1502 Børup); Studsdal (1664 Studtzdall); Oddersted (1578 Odersted); Børup Sande (1590 Børup Sand); Gudsø (1524 Gutzwiig); Søholm (1524 Sioholm).

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.
photo: Google earth.  

Monday, January 20, 2014

Jerlev church/ Jerlev kirke, Jerlev herred, Vejle amt.

Jerlev church (Google earth)
Jerlev church has a nave and choir from the Romanesque period, a late Gothic tower to the west and a newer porch to the south. The Romanesque church is in travertine upon a profiled granite plinth, while the walls are extensively repaired with large and small bricks. The choir gable is bricked with monk bricks. Upon the north side of the nave are rests of a facade decoration with lesens. The round arched north door and a couple of original windows are bricked-up, while the south door is extended. In the choir was in the late Middle Ages built an octagonal rib vault; the nave has a flat ceiling. The low tower in monk bricks from a relocated socket is to the south and west bricked with small bricks (in the gable is the year 1851). The tower room with a broad round arch towards the nave has large flatcurved niches and a vault like the choir's. The porch is in small bricks. In the choir arch was in 1932 found a frescoe decoration  from the end of the Middle Ages (restored in 1946).

The altarpiece is from 1944 with painting by Ole Søndergaard. The earlier altarpiece from 1678 with a painting from 1842 is deposited in Vejle Museum. The altar candelabres were given by Nis Ibsen in Jerlev (+ 1601) and wife (+ 1608). A Romanesque granite font with a smooth basin. A strange choir arch crucifix from ab. 1250  ( the Christ figure stands upon the globe); it is kept in the National Museum (source 1964). A pulpit in Renaissance from 1626 with paintings from the 1700s and decoration from 1932. A tablet informs that the pulpit was given and paid by Morten Bundesen in Jerlev and wife in return for his parents' and his and his wife's burial place in the church. The pews were re-newed in 1932. A small iron-bound money block. A bell from 1400s with Latin minuskel inscription ("this bell is cast in Jerlev"); it was re-cast in 1914.

landscape, Mejsling, (Google earth)
Jerlevgård was in 1837 bought by Jonas Casimir Ingwersen of Viufgård. He sold it the next year and in ab. 1840 it belonged to Risom, in 1842 to Andr. Kock, who in 1860 sold it to H.Lütjens from Altona, who in 1867 sold it to Jesper P. Berg. Other owners: Søren Eskildsen; H.K. Tingleff.; Boye, S.M.Salling, Raun and Albertsen, A.P.Eriksen of Agersbøl, V. Holste, J. Smith, T. Thellefsen, who sold it in 1948 to Johannes Larsen.

Hr Svend Bonde and hr Jens Basse deeded 1289 their estate in Jerlev Skov to the bishop in Ribe.

At Tvedgård near the parish border to Nr. Vilstrup in Skibet parish was a village Holbøl (1400 Hoolbyl).

There are no listed prehistorics in the parish, but there were 18 hills, 4 of these lay in a row south of Jerlev, 7 were more spread west of the village and 4 north of the village.

In a moor at Mejsling were found 130 amber pearls.

Names from the Middle Ages and 1600s: Jerlev (1248 Jarløf); Mejsling (1454 Meslingh); Tvedgård (1610 Tueed).

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.   
photo: Google earth.

Sunday, January 19, 2014

Hornstrup church/ Hornstrup kirke, Nørvang herred, Vejle amt

Hornstrup church, Google earth

Hornstrup church The whitewashed church in Hornstrup is tiled, except for the tower, which has a leaden roof. The church has a Romanesque choir and nave with a late Gothic tower to the west and a porch from the reformation period to the south. The Romanesque building is in raw granite and travertine without a visible plinth. The choir has kept rests of an original wall-decoration with narrow corner lesenes, between which is a round-arch frieze upon the east side. The extended south door is in use, while the north door has disappeared. In the north side of the choir is inside seen a bricked-up flatcurved door, which might be original,  but most probably has led out to the sacristy. The round choir arch stands inside with straight-edged kragsten (corbels). In the Gothic period, probably ab. 1400, choir and nave were vaulted, the choir with one, the nave with three bays cross vaults, all with profiled ribs. In late Gothic period the tower was added in monk bricks; it has a cross-vaulted bottom room with a pointed arch towards the nave. The bell storey has to the south, west and north tall, round-arched peepholes, one couple for each corner of the world. The smooth gables turn east, west and show the foot timber of the roof work. The porch is mainly built in monk bricks, it seems to origin from the middle of the 1500s. Its extended flat-curved door, flanked by two circular glares, us placed in a round-arched frame. Badly kept fresco-remains from ab 1500 were revealed in 1903 in choir and nave, but was whitewashed again.

Hornstrup church, Google earth
The altarpiece is a simple joinery in Baroque from 1685 with a painting from 1914, a copy of a Carl Bloch-painting. A Romanesque granite font with very scrapped, carved figures; four lions, divided by trees two and two. The font is much familiar to the font in Korning. A south German dish ab. 1575. A pulpit in rural late Baroque ab. 1750. In the west end of the nave a gallery with organ. In the porch a naive wooden figure (Moses) from the 1700s. The bell from the beginning of the 1300s with majuskel inscription:  IHESUS CRISTUS GHODEHARDUS. - A gravestone for Iver Vind of Grundet (+ 1586) and wife Anne Heinrichsdatter (+ 1579), four coat of arms and a written kartouche under arcade, a work by the Roskilde-master Oluf N. Krog.

Store Grundet 1910, wikipedia
Store Grundet, wikipedia
Store Grundet. Frederik II exchanged in 1579 the village Grundet to Iver Vind (+ 1586); he wrote himself of Grundet already the same year. Grundet came after his death to his sons Christen Vind (+ 1605) Henrik Vind (+ 1607) and Jakob Vind (+ 1607); the last mentioned's widow Else Høeg (Banner) still owned the farm in 1609, but thereafter it came to Jakob's brother's son Niels Albertsen Vind of Ullerup (+ 1615); his widow Kirsten Juel (+ 1627) and son Niels Vind (+ 1646). In 1638 Kirstine Nielsdatter Vind  (+ 1690) inherited G. She was married to Tage Krabbe of Gunderslevholm (+ 1676). She sold G. in 1679 to colonel Otto Fr. v Gamm (+ 1698), whom she later married. In an exchange after him the farm was laid out with taxes and estate and main building to the son Christoffer Fr. v. Gamm (+ 1701), whose halfbrother, major Erik Krabbe (+ 1709) in 1705 deeded it to colonel Ditlev Brockdorff of Hvolgård, who in 1710 deeded it to his brother generalløjtnant, friherre Shack Brockdorff of Schelenborg (+ 1730). In 1722 the farm was deeded to his son-in-law, colonel Henrik Brockdorff of Stovgård (+ 1730), whose widow Charlotte Amalie Reedtz in 1731 gave her inheritence-rights in G. to her stepson colonel Schack von Brockdorff of Højgård (+ 1761). His widow Sophie Hedevig v Grabow owned G. till her death in 1784, whereafter her son-in-law merchant Hans Helmuth v Lüttichau of Tjele (+ 1801) bought G.,Højgård, taxes, church estate and farm estate at an auction.
 Later owners: Shack v Lüttichau, Mathias v Lüttichau, Johan Sigismund Knuth, Christian Frederik Knuth, Niels Skou, and after 1930  Nels Skou's heirs.
Store Grundet and new parcels. Google earth.

The main building (1840-1842-1847)  is listed in class B. The garden is one with the forest ,a large avenue leads up to the main road.

Lille Grundet was made from 8 parcels of Store Grundet. Deeded in 1800 to Jens Sørensen in Rødemølle, same year deeded to Laurids Kilstrup (+ 1823). The owner from 1891 Niels Skou, after his death in 1930 to his son N. Skou.

Øster Grundet belonged to Kr. Skou (+1958); after him to his daughter fru Iris Lundgaard, Ausumgård.

Juulsbjerg is from ab. 1845, owner in 1964 V. Jørgensen.

A farm in Lysholt was by the Crown exchanged to Peder Ebbesen Galt; after his brother's son Ebbe Andersen Galt (+ unmarried ab. 1553) the farm Lysholt came to his mother's brother Christoffer Gøye (+ childless 1584), who owned it in 1562. Later it belonged to Hans Axelsen Arenfeldt of Rugård (+ 1611) whose son hr. Axel Arenfelt of Basnæs still in 1626 wrote himself of it. In 1773 Lysholt was under Grundet.

Esbern Jensen deeded some estate in Lysholt to hr Niels Brock the elder, who let Peder Hamundsen use it, in 1323 Christoffer II had to, after 4 in vain judgments, to let Niels Brock enter the estate by power.

Grundet birk (judicial)  is mentioned for the first time in 1495 and was apparently the 7 farms which  represented Grundet village. In an exchange in 1578, where Iver Vind bought Grundet village, is Grundet birk also mentioned. Its size was now extended and included in 1687 9 farms and 6 smaller houses in Hornstrup, in Lysholt 1 farm, in Kirkeby 1 farm and in Grønholt 4 farms. At that time the name Hornstrup birk was used. The birk was abandoned in 1806, since the estates came under a herredsjurisdiction. (districtjurisdiction).

Hornstrup, landscape, Google earth.
Ege or Egebjerg birk seems already mentioned in 1401, since there was a thing's witness about some estate in Bredballe and Tirsbæk. The sources indicate that this birk was for Bredballe and Tirsbæk.   .

There were many feuds about Bredballe, where the king only had a small desolate bol (house), but the royal vasal tried to lay hands on two farms and to make the Bredballe farmers belong to Rom's birk.  Niels Bugge's son-in-law Johan Skarpenberg forced the men in Bredballe to do rope in Roms birk This was forbidden by the state council in 1469. But the feuds did not stop. In 1533 a final judgment was confirmed  by the state council about the birks.

A sacred spring was found at Stejlbjerg in Bredballe.  

During a clearance of a small forest at Hornstrup in 1842 numerous coins were found, among those some Netherland dalere and crowns from Chr IV, a collected weight of 2118 gram, the latest coin was from 1624.

Sindholt (1478 Sinholtt) is the name of an area between Store Grundet and Hornstrup church, where acc. to a priest report from 1638 stood a kloster "Sindholtsborg"; there were still rests of cellars.

Grundet was originaly a village, nearby was another village Grønholt (1638 Grønholtt) which in 1664 was said to consist of 8 bol (smaller houses),  among these Podehuset (1683 Podehuesed) and Munkehuset (1683 Munchehues, Monckhuussz). 
 No prehistorics.
Destroyed or demolished: 6 hills, among these the stone encircled Gammelhøj at Bredballe. 

In Grejsdalen was discovered an important sacrifice- or depot-find of thicknecked flint axes. An Iron Age's shell heap is known from the mouth of Bybæk (the city brook) -  and at Bredballe mark (field) were found waste pits and urn graves from Celtic Iron Age.

Hornstrup parish became 27/3 1700 annex of Vejle, but in a resolution of 9/8 1908 it became again its own parish.

Names from the Middle Ages: Kirkeby (1496 Kirckebye); Hornstrup (ab. 1330 Hornstorp); Bredballe (1469 Bredebalgh; 1471 Bredhballigh); Store Grundet (1459 Grunydh, 1480 Grunnet).

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.
photo: Google earth and wikipedia.