Sunday, July 17, 2011

As church / As kirke and Palsgård, Bjerre herred, Vejle amt.

The whitewashed, tiled church, which lies upon a hillside close to the waters of Kattegat, has a Romanesque  choir and nave, radically rebuilt ab. 1300, a late Gothic western addition, a west tower and a porch to the south.  The original parts of the building are in rough granite stone with corner ashlars and without a visible plinth. Only small details are visible from the original walls, like in the bottom of the south side of the choir, a part of the east side of the choir and the north side of the nave, where the bricked up door  is traceable and two round arched windows are bricked up. In ab. 1300 was a large part of the walls renewed or even face walled with red monk bricks.  In the middle of the 1400s was in the choir built one and in the nave three cross vaults in East Jutland type upon protruding piers, and the choir arch was remade; later was the nave extended to the west with an eight ribbed cross vault, and in the latest decades of the Middle Ages were added a narrow tower and a cross vaulted porch. The look of the building is highly marked by a restoration in the end of the 1700s. The building was restored in 1904 and in 1959.                               

As church vicarage

In 1904 were found fragmentaric frescoes from 1515, among others an illustration of the fable about the fox and the stork, and the coat of arms of bishop Jens Iversen Lange. The inventory is mostly from 1904-05, since most of the old inventory was removed - some of it is in Horsens Museum. The new inventory is in a flashy, neo Gothic style , made in polished oak and designed by Hector Estrup. The altar piece is a crucifixion-painting, a copy from a Spanish baroque-painter. Chalice from 1758 with the coat of arms of Bille and Arenfeldt. Small, late Gothic candelabres. A small crucifix from the middle of the 1600s. The font, the pulpit, the pews and the manor-stools are all from 1904-05. The old pulpit was a good Rococo work by Jens Jensen, while the altar piece and a gallery were made by Jens Hiernøe. A new model of curch ship, a five master bark. A bell from 1510, cast by Johannes Pauli.

Palsgård is said to belong to hr. Jacob Kalf in the 1400s; his son Axel Knob (Kalf) let build a house in 1412 according to an inscription stone, which still existed in 1806. Its later owner-history is very complicated, caused by several  inherited services. Hr. Ludvig Nielsen (Rosenkrantz) is written to P. in 1461 and 1482; his sons Niels and Claus and more than 10 grandchildren from the families Skeel, Gyldenstierne, Juel and Munk (Lange-Munk) owned parts in the estate, while other parts belonged to members of the families Galt, Munk (Vinranke-Munk), Pax and more.  A descendant of hr. Ludvig Nielsen was Ingeborg Arenfeldt ( + 1658), whose husband Ernst Normand of Selsø (+ 1645) collected the estate. The daughter Kirsten Normand brought in 1658 P. to her husband Joachim Fr. Pentz of Åstrup, who became ruined during the Swedish wars, whereafter the kansler Peter Reedtz in 1665 became the owner. After his death in 1674 was P. inherited by his son Holger Reedtz (+ 1707), his widow baroness Berte Christine Juel (+ 1732) and son Niels Juel Reedtz (+ 1742), his widow Mette Johanne Arenfeldt (+ 1762, who was m. second time to Henrik Bille of Holbækgård) and son Holger Reedtz (+ 1803), who in 1795 sold P. to his son Niels Juel Reedtz (+ 1830). From him  came P. to his son Holger Chr. Reedtz (+ 1857), who established an observatorie at the farm. His heirs sold in 1877 P. to prins Emil R.O. Schoenaich-Carolath. He sold it 1898 to baron Frederik (Fritz) Wedel-Jarlsberg, whose widow fru Elisabeth Schou (later married Falbe-Hansen) owned it until her death in 1952; the heirs Herbert Schou and fru Gertrud Andersen let it be transferred to a family-company Schou-Palsgård.  

The white main-building is placed upon a square castle bank above  steep dry moats. The water from As Vig reached close to the farm in the end of the 1900s. The three-winged building is listed in class B.

The farm buildings are built in various periods, they are partly half timbered and partly in boulder. In connection to these were built the factory Credin.

The park is one of the largest in the country and one of the best well-kept. Foreign secretary Holger Reedtz was an avid botanist and introduced many rare trees and growths, and baron Wedel-Jarlsberg laid out large areas for lawns and created a grand entrance from the west.

Foreign secretary Holger Reedtz established in 1843-44 an astronimical observatorie in a small building in front of the main bulding,  and he built in 1853 a costy equipped observatorie in boulder. The observatorie has later been rebuilt into a temple-like pavillon with  fluted columns.

A memorial obelisk was raised for the family Reedtz in 1866.    

Northeast of Palsgård at the beach is a medieval castle bank with two banks, of which the eastern is the smallest, a square bank ,while the western is larger and rectangular . Both banks were once surrounded by water. The western bank is connected with land on the south side. A damn prevents the water from streaming out into the beach. The moats are kept water-filled from the higher placed fields. Upon the banks have been found monk bricks with traces of fire and lumps of melted iron. It seems that the buildings were destroyed by fire.  

Listed prehistorics: At Ringstholm a circular dolmen with a square chamber with a large cover stone, and a hill close to the church.
Destroyed or demolished: two hills, Ashøj which Pont. Atlas mentions as grave hill of king As, is a natural grovel hill. 

From Ringstholm is known a shell heap from early Stone Age. From the farm Holgershåb is known an important settlement from early Roman Iron Age.

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964. 

photo 2004 and 2011.grethe bachmann (addition of photos from 2004 in November 2012)

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Daugård church / Daugård kirke and Williamsborg, Hatting herred, Vejle amt.

Daugård church, Hatting herred, Vejle amt
10 km northeast of Vejle
The large white-washed church in Daugård has a Romanesque choir and nave with late Gothic additions: a tower to the west and a porch to the south. The Romanesque building is in travertine upon a vaguely marked plinth. The choir and nave have partly kept their original wall-decorations with lisens and round arch friezes in two storeyes and with narrow lisen-bands around the bricked-up windows. The round arched south door is in use, while the north door is almost gone. The choir arch seems expanded in the late Gothic period and like the eastern part of the choir rebuilt in monk bricks; the gable has lisens, which continue in the gable-triangle with round arches, a  Romanesque mark, which is also found in Engum church and several other buildings in East Jutland. In the choir was built a cross-vault with ribs, in the nave three cross vaults upon protruding wall-pillars. From the same period is the west tower, which cross-vaulted bottom room opens in full broadth towards the nave in a pointed arch. The smooth gables are rebuilt, probably in a thorough repair in 1792. The late Gothic porch has a stepped gable with seven roundarched high-glares and small cross-glares.

house in Daugård

Upon the north wall of the choir were in 1956 found fragmentaric Romanesuq frescoes from ab. 1200. They were cleansed in 1960. At the choir arch are vine-frescoes from the Reformation-period.  The altar piece is a typical work by Jens Hiernøe from ab. 1800 with corintich pillars, vases and symbols. In the big field a painting from the late 1800s, a copy of Carl Bloch's Gethsemane. Chalice from 1692. Late Gothic ore candelabres. A fine Romanesque font with lions with characteristic manes, reflecting ornaments from the Viking period and connecting it to fonts in Ejstrup and Nr. Snede church. A south German bowl from ab. 1575. A pulpit in simple Renaissance from ab. 1610 with Tuscany corner pillars, repaired in 1939. A sounding board in acanthus Baroque from the 1700s. A new model of a five-master bark. Bell by Gamst from 1815. In the north wall of the choir a Romanesque granite grave stone  with majuskel inscription: ACERUS CAPELAN JACET HIC.


old railway bridge, Tirsbæk

Bryskesborg (1664 Bryschisborig)was founded from some desolate farms by Lisbeth Bryske of Tirsbæk (+ 1673), in 1661 it was desolate and broken down, and in 1684 gave Steen Bille it to Rasmus Nielsen, absolutely free for the rest of his life,  if he in return would build the outbuildings, while Steen Bille built a farmhouse. The estate had joint owner with Tirsbæk, until Jørgen Hvass de Lindenplalm in 1774 endowed it to his son-in-law William Halling, later of Dronninglund, who in 1775 had royal grant to call it Williamsborg. He sold it to Chr.Kallager, who in 1784 endowed it to Joh. Fr.v.Schmidten (+ 1830). After having sold most of the farm estate Williamsborg was endowed with Daugård parish's  royal- and church-taxes and estate in 1810 to Jeremias Müller Secher,  who in 1824 endowed it to Niels Emanuel de Thygeson of Bygholm. Then W. came in 1827 to Carl Gustav Lillienskjold (+ 1830 ), whose heirs in 1837 sold it to Carl Henrik Martini ( + 1860), whose widow Margrethe Frederikke Bevensee owned it until her death in 1890, after which the heirs sold it to A.P. Frederiksen of Elkærholm. After his death in 1901 the heirs sold W. in 1902 to baron Hans Rudolph Gustav Wedell-Wedellsborg (+ 1954), whose widow in 1961 sold it to S.E.J. Broholm, Broholmgård, Fyn.

The original Bryskesborg is unknown, after the Swedish wars was it demolished. In 1774-75 built William Halling the present main wing. The side wings are probably newer. The building is listed in class B. The large three-winged ladegård (farm buildings) was rebuilt after a fire in 1912.  
house, Tirsbæk

Daugård belonged in 1719 to Joh. Ludvig v. Müllen (+ 1750), then to his son Jakob v. Müllen (+ 1779), after whom it was bought by his son Joh. Ludvig v Müllen (+ 1808). It belonged later to his widow, Catherine Dorthea Utzon (+ 1829),  and in 1829 it was endowed by Niels Emanuel de Thygeson of  Bygholm to J.P With. In 1850 it belonged to Th. Ernst and was in 1858 at an auction of his bankruptcy sold to P.Bay (+ 1865) Rudkøbing, whose son-in-law Vilh.Chr. Barner (+ 1902)  in 1866 sold it to J.B. Krarup (+ 1898), who moved his agricultural school from Skårupgård to Daugård. The school was abandoned in 1874, and the farm was sold the same year to F.A. Søltoft of Lerbæk (+1883), whose heirs sold it to Frantz Jørgen Ahlman (+ 1915), whose son-in-law Chr. E. G. Lunding took it over in 1916 and sold it in 1928 to H. Ude Hansen, whose son Niels Ude-Hansen was the owner in 1964.

Names in the Middle Ages and the 1600s:
Daugård (1399 Daghægord, 1446 Dawgord); Askebjerg (1664 Aesbierre).
Listed prehistorics: a long dolmen, where the cover stone has many hollows, a passage grave with a hexagonal chamber of 7 supporting stones, but no cover stone.
Demolished or destroyed: 2 long dolmens, 2 passage graves and 7 other stone graves. 27 hills, mostly to the west and south of the parish. In a passage grave at Skovlys' land were found 3 flint axes and 2 flint daggers.

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.  

photo Daugård & Williamsborg 2008: grethe bachmann

Friday, July 01, 2011

Sdr. Stenderup church / Sdr. Stenderup kirke, Nørre Tyrstrup herred, Vejle amttland, Vejle amt.

Sønder Stenderup parish with many castle banks and small manors. 

Sdr. Stenderup Church, Nørre Tyrstrup herred, Vejle amt.

The large church in Sønder Stenderup has a Romanesque apse, choir and nave with a late Gothic western tower and a porch west of the tower, probably from 1869. The Romanesque building is in granite ashlars upon a faintly marked, double plinth. The northside is almost untouched, where the nave has three, the choir two round arched windows. The other walls are very re-built, especially in a thorough repair in 1869, when the apse was rebuilt and the roof of the choir lifted in the same height as the nave. The apse has inside a late Gothic rib vault, while choir and nave have flat plaster-ceilings with stucco-decorations from 1869. The choir arch was removed. The late Gothic tower has a cross-vaulted bottom room with a pointed tower arch and a pyramid spire. The other parts of the tower are on the southside rebuilt in 1806 with iron anchers and initials of Chr. VII and C.W. von Ahlefeldt etc.

The altar piece is a joinery , probably from 1869, with a painting. Some apostel figures and a small crucifix, which is a fine carving from ab. 1500, all from an abandoned altar piece are kept in the church. The figures of the crucified robbers are in the museum at Koldinghus, while some other figures of Mary, Sct. Antonius and two bishop-saints are at the National Museum. The chalice is from ab. 1850, probably given by parish priest Johannes Petersen. Three pairs of altar candelabres: 1) very heavy early Renaissance ab. 1575 2) 1794, given by Jess Hansen Beck; 3) from 1886. Besides a fine early Gothic choir arch crucifix from ab. 1300 or a little earlier. A couple of side figures from ab. 1400 are in the museum at Koldinghus. A Romanesque granite font, smooth basin upon a circular foot with archades. A smooth copper bowl from the 1700s. A pulpit in neo-Renaissance, probably from 1869. A simple Renaissance-pulpit from 1618 is in the museum at Koldinghus. By the western and northern walls are galleries. Some plaster-reliefs by Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen, pre-works of the kathoveddør (cat's head door) in Ribe Cathedral, were given to the church in 1922 by the artist and placed on the walls.  Bells: 1) 1886, by P.P. Meilstrup, re-cast from a bell from 1793 by Gamst; 2) 1901, by L. Andersen, Aarhus from a bell from 1701, Claus Rasmussen, Husum.  
Sdr. Stenderup, view from church yard.
in church yard

Many small manors in the parish:
Catrinebjerg , built 1923, threewinged, red bricks, whitewashed details. Owners: Jes Sørensen ( + 1818), Paul Tonnesen, 1883 Peter Chr. Juel Bogh, 1909 N.P. Stenderup, 1940 J.J. Bech.

Tygesminde, built 1873, red walls with decorative details. Owners: 1855 P.J. Brodersen, 1899 baron Preben Charles Bille-Brahe-Selby, 1908 Nis Schrøder-Jørgensen, 1938 H.C. Buhl, 1944 C.Vestergaard Frandsen, 1949 H.K.Madsen, 1950 captain L.K. Pay, 1957 count W. Schulin-Zeuthen.

Lykkesgård, built 1858-62, yellow Flensborg-bricks in carved granite ashlars with several decorative details. Facade painted white with grey details, other walls are yellow and blank. Owners: 1697 Jes Madsen, 1720 Anker Hansen, 1743 the son Hans Andersen, 1762 Jes Mikkelsen, 1800 Jes Thygesen, 1838 the son Jes Thygesen, 1886 his son cand. jur. Jes Thygesen (+ 1910) , 1912 O.L. Juhl, 1959 his son H.C. Juhl.

Lauridsminde, bilt ab. 1860, bricked, whitewashed. Owners: Laurids Poulsen, 1803 his son-in-law Hans Johansen, 1825 his son Laurids Hansen, 1857 his son Christian Christoffersen Bramsen, 1885 his son Laurids Hansen Bramsen and 1924 his son Christian Bramsen, 1948 the sons L. and A.C. Bramsen.

Juelsminde, built 1883, red bricks, one floor above high cellar. Owners: from 1723 the family Juhl, 1875 Claus Jensen Juel  (+ 1891), 1910 the son J.P.Juel, 1939 the son-in-law K.K.Back (+ 1940), 1940 his widow fru I.Back.

Fensbjerggård built 1864-66, large yellow washed at the edge of  Nørreskov. Owners: Jep Lauesen Beck, 1894 the son Christian Lauesen Frost , 1937 H. Andreasen (+ 1946), 1946 the son K.E.Andreasen.   

Varmarkgård built ab. 1800, large, whitewashed. Owners: 1818 Jep Pagh, 1839 Frederik Petersen, 1893 the son Anker Petersen, 1912 H.C.Juhl, 1913 R.P.Juhl, 1924 konsul A.C. Gjørding, 1928 graduate in agriculture K.W. Framming, 1941 J.O. Juhl (+ 1948), 1948 his daughter L. Juhl.

Stenderup Vargård (1564 Vargaard) belonged to Hartvig Smalsted ( ab. 1482) and the son Timme Smalsted, whose sister Helvig was m. to Anders Ebbesen (Ulfeld) (+ 1523). The farm came to their son Jost Andersen (Ulfeld) (+ 1563), whose son-in-law Mads Eriksen Vasspyd 1585 exchanged the farm to the Crown. 

Jens Pedersen of Stenderup is mentioned in1315. Birkefoged (bailiff) Jens Hugger owned in 1519 some land in S. and was in 1523 given Stenderupgaard by Frederik II. In1787 S. belonged to C.L.Zoega (+ 1829),  then to his widow Christiane Sophie Erichsen, from 1832 to J.C.Thygesen, then to his son P. Thygesen (+ 1888), and from 1894 to his son J.C. Thygesen, who 1913 sold it to P Juhl. In 1918 S. was sold by Ravn to Hansen, but P. Juhl bought it again. In 1922 it was sold to H. Wilckens, whose son G.P. Wilckens took it over in 1953. - The white washed main building was built 1807 by C.L. Zoega.

The closely built together Stenderup village burnt down in a violent fire 27 June 1807, which started at Stenderupgård; after this moved many large farms out and were rebuilt in their fields.

Skinkelsborg birk (judicial district). In 1407 bought queen Margrethe Skinkelsborg (1407 Skinkelsborgh, Skinkelborgh) from Claus Limbek. The farm had earlier been owned by Henneke Skinkel. 11. June 1442 was Eggert Frille endowed with Skinkelsborg vasalry. Still in the 1500s was the area a special vasalry, to which in 1542/1543 belonged some estate in Sdr. Stenderup, Agtrup, Sdr. Bjert, Binderup, Skartved, Strårup and Rebæk. In 1518 was the area a special birk (judicial district).

Many castle banks in the parish: 
In the moor ab. 650 m west-south-west of Lykkesgaard lies the (earlier large) medieval castle bank Skinkelsborg, which has been ploughed for many years. It has gradually been levelled. It is an irregular,  square castle bank ( ab. 58 x 53 m and earlier ab. 4 m high). To the north divided by a narrow moat is a lower bank , ab. 38 x 25 m, up to 2 m high. To the west is a border of meadows, while the other sides are surrounded by an up to 10 m broad moat, and outside by an up to 12 m broad damn. Outside this is the swampy moor, except to the northeast, where a 7 m broad, outer moat cuts off the plan by a natural rise in the meadow. Here are found rests of bricks.

The castle bank Borgsted Bakke (upon Griese's map from 1718-17 named Stensborg) lies by the coast ab. 700 m southeast of Rønshoved. It is a rounded-off castle bank, diameter ab. 25 m, placed outermost on the cliff towards the beach, a dry pit surrounds it on the landside and continues down to the beach protecting it on both sides with a steep natural slope. In the northern part of the bank was according to tradition  a place for canons in 1864.

By the beach, ab. 350 m north of Skovridergaarden lies another castle bank, placed in a natural edge of land stretching out towards the coast. The almost rectangular castle bank is to one side protected by a natural slope down to the beach, while a 3 m deep dry moat is laid out to the other sides. The top area of the bank is a little hollow and has some strange circular forward corners towards the landside.

In the northeastern outskirt of Sønderskov, about 200 m southwest of Dorthealund, lies the castle bank Husvold. A landtongue, which once stretched to the east out into the almost dry beach meadow, has been isolated from the higher placed land to the west by a large, originally water-filled L-shaped moat. This created  an almost triangular castle area (diameter ab. 60 x 70 m). The out-digged earth from the moat has been put up as banks on both sides of this castle area. The plan almost gives the impression of a prehistoric bygdeborg. ( a castle for a settlement).

From Stenderup Hage went the Swedish troops 30 January1658 across the ice over Lillebælt to Fønsskov.
Stenderup village burnt down in 1591. In Sdr. Stenderup burnt on 27. June 1807 21 farms and 36 houses and the vicarage. By the vicarage was a sacred well, Stenkilde.  

Names in the Middle Ages and the 1600s:
Sdr. Stenderup (1304 Stenthorp); Gammel Ålbo (1649 Gammelahlbode).

Listed prehistorics: 4 long dolmens, a dolmen chamber and 34 hills, mostly placed in the statsskovene (forests belonging to the State), the largest is a two-chambered long dolmen with a cover-stone near Skovridergaarden. Two large hills lie in the forest close to Fensbjerghus and in the garden of Kongens Hørgård.
Demolished or destroyed: a long dolmen, a round dolmen, 2 long hills and 70 hills.

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt. 1964.

photo 11 August 2009: grethe bachmann