Thursday, October 28, 2010

Gammellund, Mors, North Jutland, Thisted amt.

Gammellund, ab. 20 km southwest of Nykøbing Mors
Øster Assels sogn, Morsø Sønder herred, Thisted amt.

Gammellund is is now situated far from the beaten track on the southernest tip of the island Mors, where the hills end in the salt beach meadows along the coast of Limfjorden. The farm is now unimpressive and outparcelled, but it was once a grand place. Lund or Lundegård was the king's permanent castle, placed by the important arterial road (adelvejen = nobility road), leading from Thyholm through Mors, first across Tambo Sound to Jegindø, next a short sailing trip to Hester Odde at Mors. Between Sillerslev Øre and Nymølle in Salling was a ferry route of importance.

There were often feuds about the disposals of the ferry routes among the inhabitants in north and south - in 1598 Henrik Below of Spøttrup tried in vain to prevent the vasal at Lund, Thomas Fasti, in using the ferry at Nymølle (belonged to Spøttrup) - and as late as ab. 1850 Gammellund's owner fought with the Jegindø- commoners about the ferry-privilege. The first historically known owner of Lund, hr. Johan Gotskalksen Skarpenberg, who wrote himself of the farm in 1404, had a large estate south of the Limfjord, among others Spøttrup.

Salling, Nymølle nær færgested "Pinen og Plagen".

The large, overgrown castle bank, which is in the garden just north of the farm, reminds of the vanished greatness of Lund. The bank rises steep from the moat, which had an outer bank on three sides. The fourth bank is levelled, measuring ab. 80 x 53 m and was by a cross moat divided in two. This is a so-called castrum-curia plan, which had its actual fortification upon a lesser, now out-digged northeastern bank, while the buildings were at the large southwestern bank, which was with buildings until 1818. The earliest buildings were probably wood- or half-timbered houses, although bricks have been found, but the plan must be from before Skarpenberg's time.

The Skarpenberg family was one of several North German magnate-families, who came to Denmark in the 14th century, when the Holstein princes infiltrated the Nordic countries. Hr. Johan's father Gotskalk Skarpenberg had via marriage to Niels Bugge's daughter Elisabeth (Lisbeth) achieved a large estate. Spøttrup and Højriis belonged to the estate, which hr. Johan sold, but he was also said to have lost Lund. According to legend he had to give his estate to the Crown and escape land and kingdom , because he had burnt down a royal castle. It is doubtful, if there is any historical base of this, for Skarpenberg was one of the mightiest men in the kingdom and one of queen Margrethe's most trusted men. He is probably mentioned as a rigsråd in 1417, but was dead four years later and buried in Viborg cathedral. But his estate at Mors made later up a royal vasalry with own judicial rights, which included Vester and Øster Assels parish. In 1605 was Jegindø parish added.

Salling, Spøttrup Castle

In 1651 were Lund plus Bustrup in Salling laid out to two of the Crown's creditors, two brother's-in-law, Hamburg-merchants Albert Baltzer Berns and Leonhard Marselis. When Bern's daughter Elisabeth in 1654 married her father's earlier trainee and later partner, admiralitetsråd Poul Klingenberg, she probably brought Lund to him. Klingenberg was ennobled in 1669 - he belonged to those creditors of the Crown, who after 1660 by lay out was given much estate (Dueholm, Hanerau), and he bought himself more estate (Højriis, Ørum). Beyond his business he went into the government service in an active way and reorganized the mail services. But it proved, that he overreached himself and had too much bad estate; besides he was involved in transactions leading to lawsuits, which finally brought him on the verge of bankruptcy. Five years before his death he had in 1685 to give up the mail services, but he transferred at the same time Lund, Højriis and Ørum as a maternal inheritance to his only son, Poul von Klingenberg; thus it was saved for the family.

Mors, Gammellund, castle bank

In 1724 more than 40% of the peasant-estate at Mors still belonged to the Klingenberg-family, but Lund was hardly inhabited. Both the young Poul von Klingenberg (+ 1723) and his son, etatsråd Frederik Christian von Klingenberg, resided at Højriis. The last mentioned's widow, Anne Cathrine von Bülow married in 1751 oberst Philip Gotfred von Samitz, and the following year was built a new main building at Lund, a four-winged, half-timbered building plan with tailed roofs. Samitz died in 1762, his widow a year after, whereafter Lund and Blistrup plus taxes and peasant-estate were sold to kancelliråd Thomas Thomsen Lund at Grinderslev Kloster.

Thomas Lund is one of more interesting owners. He was born in 1727 at the manor Slumstrup, and he first speculated in estate-trading, before he came to Mors. He was an energetic farmer - there are legends about him as a "peasant-tormentor". The ghost of the one-legged "Thomas Pileben" (pile = dart off) is still riding his horse between Øster Assels and Gammellund, and in 1805 was written that his name was still mentioned in fear. But the management of the farm was improved, and in 1768 he built a solid farmbuilding. He also established tileworks, limeworks and a faience- and stoneware factory, founded by royal privilege as the first outside Copenhagen. But in spite of good materials and sales' conditions the factory became a big disappointment, and he died a ruined man in 1777. Already before his death estate and factory were at auction, but it was his widow, who in 1778 sold to Hans Meulengracht and Saxo Aschanius.

Mors, landscape

The new owners continued the factory-work, but this only lasted for a short time. In 1784 Meulengracht left the partnership, and it seems the work had come to a stop. The factory building is still mentioned in 1798 in a fire-evaluation. Aschanius died in 1788, and his widow sold six years later the estate to two estate-speculators, landsdommerne Peter Severin Fønss and Henrik Johan de Leth, who sold out more than 300 *tønder hectare peasant-estate, whereafter they in 1798 let the rests pass on to Viborg's byfoged Thomas Wissing. In 1804 he achieved royal permission to divide the manor in two parcels, Lund and Peterslund,which had happened already the previous year.

Lund now went from hand to hand; in 1818 Chr. Jacobsen of Hegnet took over the property, which was divided once again, since the parcel Katrinelund was laid out. From here was Nylund later laid out. Oberst v. Samitz' main building was broken down, and the living quarters were moved away from the old castle bank. An earlier horse stable and cart shed, which were placed at Thomas Lunds farm building, were now farmhouse. This simple white-washed building still stands, while the big barn from 1768 burnt down in 1945.
Gammellund, which the strongly reduced main parcel is called, was sold in 1818 to Chr. Jacobsen's son-in-law Søren de Stiernholm and came in 1823 to Christian Riis at Blistrup, who in 1846 gave it to his daughter's son, rigsdagsmand, justitsråd Johan Chr. Bonne, who had it until 1880. The estate changed owner a few times, until it was sold to J. Jensen in 1929. Large tracts were out-parcelled in 1936, and Gammellund was now just a farm of 70 *tønder land, which in 1966 belonged to Laurits Jensen.

* 1 tønde land = ab. 0,55 hectare = 5.516,2 m²

Source: Trap Danmark, Thisted amt, Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 12, Nordvestjylland, 1966, ved arkivar Flemming Jerk.

photo 2002/2007: grethe bachmann.

Monday, October 18, 2010

Haraldskær, East Jutland, Vejle amt.

Haraldskær, ab. 6 km west of Vejle
Skibet sogn, Tørrild herred, Vejle amt

Haraldskær was mentioned the first time in Erik of Pommern's rule. In 1434 it belonged to Niels Friis, one of the earliest from the Friis-family with a skaktavl (chess pattern) in the coat of arms/shield, the Friis' "of Haraldskær", as they are called. The name of the farm was then written "Harildkerr". Later other names Herritskier, Haritzkier etc.

Niels Friis got, according to tradition, the farm via his wife fru Ellen Henningsdatter Moltke from Bavelse. He wrote himself in 1432 "of Skibet", later until 1448 and the last time he is mentioned, of Haraldskær. His son Anders Friis was the next owner of the farm and lived still in 1507. He was married the second time to fru Bodil Cristensdatter Steenfeld, who was a quarrelsome lady. It seems she ruled for a long time at Haraldskær, where she lived still in 1543. She is often mentioned in the documents of that time. Anders Friis and Bodil had, among other children, the sons Jørgen Friis, the later wellknown belligerent Viborg-bishop, who rebuilt Hald, and Iver Friis, who died in 1557 as the owner of Haraldskær. He was buried in Skibet church, where was placed a large stone on his grave. Fru Sophie Albertsdatter Glob, who outlived him for several years, kept probably the farm until later, since some of the children were still underage. Later the farm went to the son Albert Friis, one of the most known owners of Haraldskær. He was a member of rigsrådet and owner of several larger and lesser vasalries, especially the important Riberhus.

Besides other estate Albert Friis was also the owner of Hvolgård. He was a very rich man, who improved Haraldskær in many ways. By exchange with the Crown he increased the estate; he also bought the vicarage in 1576, which was situated close to Skibet church, and placed its land under the main farm. Albert Friis built the main wing of the manor, the western, which is originally a free-standing building. The coat of arms on a fireplace in the second storey says that Albert Friis was the building master. Later, in 1768, was added an 18 bay long brick-walled building in one story, where from earlier were 8 bays half-timbered work. The buildings were surrounded by moats, which were filled up in the middle of the 1800s. Close to Haraldskær leads a bridge across the river (Vejle Å). It was after consent from Albert Friis built by Frederik II as a drawbridge (1585) in order to obtain an easy connection between Koldinghus and Skanderborg (castles).

Albert Friis died in 1601 and was buried in his parish church beside his late wife and some children, who had died infants. His surviving 6 daughters shared the rich inheritance and got each 27.000 rigsdaler in estate and money. This was a large fortune after that time's slide rule, but it never was much blessing for the daughters. The following 75 years became a confused time, where the farm either went from hand to hand or was divided into small parts among the heirs and their creditors. The daughter Karen Friis was married to the indebted waster Truid Bryske of Langesø, who had become the owner of Haraldskær, which he had to transfer to his sister-in-law fru Lisbeth Friis, since she had stood surety for him. She was indebted herself, and when her brother-in-law Frederik Munk (Lange) of Krogsgård, who was married to her sister Sophie, stood surety for her, she had to transfer the farm to him in 1622. He had until that point been a wealthy man and the owner of several manors, but he was now ruined and had to give up most of his estate. However, he kept Haraldskær until his death in 1634. His widow fru Sophie Friis also hold on to Haraldskær in spite of her economic difficulties, until she about 20 years later (ab. 1654) followed him to the grave. The son Jørgen Munk died almost at the same time as his mother.

Vejle Å river at Haraldskær

The daughters of Frederik Munk had shared the small rests of former glory and owned each a small part of the main farm. They lived in very straitened circumstances. Anne Munk showed to be a very enterprising lady. She succeeded in buying extra land and a little estate for the main farm. The year of her death, in 1677, she had sold it together with the added parts she had bought, and it seems that she owned all of it. The buyer was oberst Conrad v.d. Brincken of Fårup. He gradually succeeded in collecting land and peasant-farms to make Haraldskær profitable. The land of Fårup was also used for the completion, until more peasant-estate could be bought. When he died in 1696 Fårup came to his son Bendix, while Haraldskær and completed estate came to his son, ritmester Godske v.d. Brincken (+1730).

Main farm and estate were on auction in 1731 and was bought together with Skibet church by oberstløjtnant Pierre d'Andischou. When he died in 1751, almost everything had been pawned.
Maybe it was because the farm building burnt down in 1747 and was rebuilt, but it might also be caused by his establishing a comprehensive firm, i.e. a small-arms factory and a powder mill. This did not work out, and in order to get as much as possible from the estate after his death the exchange-commissioners had to put the estate on auction in small parts. But the estate was not divided however, it was sold to merchant and manufacturer, etatsråd Gert Hansen de Lichtenberg, who owned the two neighbouring manors Engelsholm and Kjeldkær.

Haraldskær at farm buildings

He transferred three years later (1754) all three farms to his son-in-law Christen de Linde, who moved the factory longer to the west and put Skibet church through a thorough restoration. He sold in 1767 all three farms to his brother-in-law Hans Henrik de Lichtenberg of the entailed estate Bidstrup, who the next year had royal permission to sell farm and estate separately . The same year he sold Haraldskær with only a little part of the estate and Skibet church and Jerlev parish' royal taxes to major Ove Bernhardt Lüttichau from Lerkenfeldt, who a few moths later married fru Margrethe Bülow, née Kaas, who died at the farm in 1777.

Lüttichau at once began buying estate in order to complete the farm. In 1791 the cultivated area was 350 tønder land. (1 tønde land = about 1.363 acres) When Lüttichau died childless in 1781, only 35 years of age, farm and estate came on auction again and was bought by Henrik Schmidt, who owned it until his death in 1793. His widow Birgitte Ravn married the next year major Severin Laurentius Lautrup, who in 1806 sold the main farm with Kvakmølle and a small part of the estate to Johannes Ditlev Rahr. He run Haraldskær in an old-fashioned way and could not cope during the difficult times, which arrived in the country, ruining so many people. Agent Nikolaj Nyholm, a merchant in Vejle, became the owner of several large and smaller Jutland manors, Brejninggård and Søndersthoved, Dueholm and Oxholm etc. - besides an obligation issued by Rahr of 45.666 rigsdaler with accruing interests. Nyholm obtained judgment against Rahr in 1820, and at last he bought Haraldskær. He sold the farm in 1829 to August Theodor Schütte, who later, as the owner of Bygholm, was known as a good farmer.

Vejle Ådal at Haraldskær

The farm then went from Schütte to Danqvart Neergaard of Lille Grundet, who owned it from 1838-42, and from him to Carl August Søltoft, who belonged to a solid Jutland proprietær-family. He was born at Tyrrestrup by Horsens, which was owned by his family from 1770 till 1914. He was an enterprising farmer, who did much for his farm by marling and drainage. He partly rebuilt the old farm buildings in 1855 and the following years, and the mill was extended. He sold the last small part of the estate and filled up the old moats around the manor. The main building was modernized in 1852-53. Søltoft was interested in two special things: willow planting and starlings. He planted various sorts of willow and sold considerable quantitites for basketmaker-work, and he had tried to fight the cockchafers by protecting the starlings. During 12 years he had 500 starlings' nestboxes in the garden. 134 boxes were placed in the five magnificent limes at the manor, the rest were in the forest belonging to the manor. He finally decided that now were the cockchafers almost extinct - so therefore the starling must be the most useful bird in agriculture.

Haraldskær at farm buildings.

During the 30 years Søltoft owned Haraldskær, from 1842 till 1871, (he lived until 1893) it rose to almost double value.This was due both to his improvements and to the market conditions. He was followed as owner in 1871 by løjtnant Oluf Henrik Niels de Bang of Sparresholm, co-owner of the Bangske fideikommis (entailed estate). He died already the same year and was succeeded by his son Hjalmar, who rebuilt the last of d'Andischous farm buildings in 1914. A few years before his death 1918 he transferred Haraldskær to his son Oluf de Bang, who for long had been the tenant, but he sold it shortly after in 1916 to manufacturer Christian M. Hess in Vejle, who built a new tenant-house and carried out a thorough restoration of the inside of the manor in consideration for the old look. Several plaster-lofts were removed, so the heavy oak-beams were of their best advantage again. The ramschackled side wings were rebuilt in 1917.

Chr. M. Hess died in 1929, and his eldest son, civilingeniør Christian E. Hess was by inheritance the owner of the farm in 1931. He sold some land in 1941 for a projected school and gave land to an extension of the church yard (Skibet church). The land was in his time very improved by marling, drainage and cultivation, and the yield was growing. The farm buildings burnt partly down in 1937 and was rebuilt in modern look. Ingeniør Hess died in 1963, but he had already in 1962 transferred the estate to his sons, amtsfuldmægtig, cand.jur. Christian Martin Hess and sekretær, cand.jur. Mogens Hess.

Skibet kirke ved Haraldskær

It was especially as the home of the largest and most prominent line of the famous family of the Skaktavl-Friis which caused Haraldskær to be famous among the Danish manors. Among the following owners were only few of that high reputation. Even though the building lost some of its venerable look by modernizing, it is however worth a visit, where it lies in Vejle river valley, surrounded by vigorous growth and green meadows. The country road from Vejle to Varde runs upon the hill with wide views and passes close to Skibet church, where many, who lived and worked at the farm, have got their final rest.

Kilde: Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 15, 1967, Fra Århus til Kolding, "Haraldskær", af arkivar cand.mag. S. Nygård.

photo Haraldskær/Skibet 2002/2007/2008: grethe bachmann

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Boller Castle, East Jutland, Vejle amt.

Boller Castle, 6 km east of Horsens
Uth sogn, Bjerre herred, Vejle amt.

The earliest known owner of Boller is Otte Limbek, he is in 1350 written to Boller and has, as one of the followers of the Holstein Grafs, become the owner of the manor; but Boller belonged in the end of the century to Mogens Munk (Bjælke-Munk), queen Margrethe's trusted man. In spite of this it seems they had a break , for after Mogens Munk was killed in a fight with the Holsteiners in 1410, the queen was accused of having taken his furniture and personal property at Boller; this was later given back to his brother. But earlier had queen Margrethe, according to the family books, intervened in Mogens Munk's fate, since she had forced jomfru Kirsten Pedersdatter Thott from Næs - who else was meant to be Mogens Munk's wife - to marry Jep Mus, who kidnapped her from Bosø kloster and married her in Helsingborg. This deed cost Jep Mus' his life, Mogens Munk killed him, and jomfru Kirsten moved into Boller as Mogens Munk's wife.

Mogens Munk and Kirsten Pedersdatter had three daughters. Anne, called "the haughty", married rigsråd Henrik Knudsen Gyldenstierne, who was rich in estate and by this marriage also became landlord at Boller, which he by exchange of property in 1444 increased with Dagnæs village. Fru Anne survived her husband and owned Boller until her death; in 1452 the farm with the belonging, considerable estate in the districts by Horsens went to their daughter Sophie Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne and her husband Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz of Bjørnholm.

By this marriage Boller came into the ownership of the famous family Rosenkrantz for more than 150 years. With his far and wide estates (ab. 800 peasant farms) must Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz undoubtedly have been one of the richest men in the country. He gave the management of Boller to his son Holger Eriksen Rosenkrantz, who is mentioned for the first time in 1485 and already at that point is written of Boller; nine years later hr. Erik conveyed the farm with belonging property to his son, and after Holger Eriksen's death in 1496 his father let - with authority from his other sons Niels and Henrik and his daughters' husbands - in 1499 issue a new letter, where Boller - while Erik still lived (he died in 1503) - was laid out to Holger Eriksen's children and their heirs, who then owned the estate forever.

Holger Rosenkrantz was married twice. With Margrethe Flemming he had the son Otte, with Anne Meinstrup, "fru Anne Holgers" - first court lady of three Danish queens, known for her masterful manners and tragic death - he had the son Holger. Otte Holgersen Rosenkrantz, who since 1508 had owned Boller, died together with his wife of plague in Lübeck in 1525 and left 6 children. His father's halfbrother Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz got the guardianship, which did not last long, but it was mostly a way to secure the brother's children the so-called "Norwegian inheritance", which was about 1/24 of Norway's owed land, and the guardianship had not yet finished, when he was killed in the battle at Svenstrup in 1534. A message from Johan Friis to Anders Sørensen Vedel makes it obvious that the terrors of the civil war also had been close to Boller. The peasant-army attacked the fortificated Boller.

In the meantime were Otte Holgersen Rosenkrantz' children grown-up, and in 1537 the guardianship went to the oldest brother, Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz, who was born in 1517. He had just returned after an education abroad and was now full-time occupied by taking care of the family estate. Holger Rosenkrantz is mentioned of Boller in 1540, when he gave Christian III a money supply, and from 1548 he took permanent residence at Boller after having married Mette Krognos. But he was not the sole owner until 1551 after various family matters about exchange and inheritance had been solved. The farm had now achieved an owner, whose name shows everywhere in the history of that time, in politics and diplomacy, in administration and military, and also at court, and with a close personal relation to the king. He was appointed governor in Nørrejylland (1567-1575) and he was Danmarks Riges marsk (military top chief) until 1573.

In connection to his collecting estate Holger Rosenkrantz was allowed to place the villages Tyrsted, Ustrup and Nedergård and a farm Rold under Boller birk (judicial district); he got jus patronatus of Tyrsted and Uth church and in 1574 a gift letter of Sejet church, the church land etc. and allowance to break down the church to re-use the materials for his parish church in Uth. He started some building work on both Boller and at another property, Rosenvold, but death interrupted his plans. He probably only achieved to build the northern house at Boller. He was a man, who wanted to help others, he let buy and place books in Uth, Tyrsted and Hatting church, and in his position as a vasal at Bygholm he established Horsens hospital and made the king give favours; he also gave some estate - which his parents had founded for masses in Mariager kloster - to the hospital, since the masses were now abandoned; he set up five beds at the hospital with rights for himself and his heirs to choose them for poor people. The old inventory from Skt. Hans kloster at Horsens - which he by a special royal favour was allowed to keep - was given to the hospital.

With many important state assignments, as the owner of widespread and rich estate and with his good relations to the king he had a prominent position in the social life of that period. From what is told about him is it obvious that he was a Renaissance man. He did not spend much of his time at his estate Boller, even his son Otte Christoffer's birth and a younger son's baptism were celebrated elsewhere. He died at Bygholm in 1575 and was brought to Boller, where he was buried in his parish church in Uth. His wife Karen Gyldenstierne, whom he had married in 1568, was an active and energetic lady, but also somewhat stubborn and self-assured, her authoritity often turned into aggression. She managed the estate during her son's underage years with a firm hand.

First of all she wanted to find a resting place for her husband, befitting his rank - the strong Renaissance sense of the undying fame. The year after his death she let Uth old church break down and let build a new three-naved church; she decorated it with the impressive, characteristic painting of Holger Rosenkrantz, herself and their four sons, and she let set up the beautiful altar piece. She increased the family estate via numerous exchange of property, and Boller's and Rosenvold's adjoining land grew fast. She had given her sons the best of educations and in wise dispositions she had managed for each of them that they could enter a large estate with widespread adjoining land and a perfect finished main building. After in 1585 having re-built Rosenvold, she finished in 1588 the main building at Boller, which is told at the inscription-tablets on both manors. She - "fru Karen Holgers" - had now taken care of her closest family, and after Otte Christoffer had become of age and took over Boller as a married man, she could now withdraw to the rich Skt. Hans kloster, which her husband had achieved in 1575. She re-created it into Stjernholm, a name she decided herself.

However she was still active and energetic, and she became a difficult and expensive neighbour of the citizens of Horsens town. They probably felt relieved, when she died in 1613 and was brought from Horsens to the family burial in Uth church. Her last years were troublesome. Her son Frederik was in 1599 given a hard punishment for his relationship to Rigborg Brockenhuus and died three years later in exile. Also Otte Christoffer Rosenkrantz was a troublemaker. His richness turned completely his head, he spent money for splendour and glory, and he was involved in raising loans at high interests and lost great sums. He contracted debts, and raised loans and contracted debts etc. etc...... When he died was only Boller left from his large and rich estate, and his debts were 100.000 rigsdaler, an enormous sum at that time. His finansial transactions were a pathetic counter-example of his father and mother's strong, deserving administration.

The ill-treated Boller manor was still in danger. The creditors from Holstein threatened to take the estate, and Otte Christoffer's heirs, the son Holger and three daughters, were in such a difficult position that they sold the estate in 1621 to fru Ellen Marsvin, and at the same time they came under some administration in order to secure that the interests of the debts were paid with the interests of the purchase price. This was a painful getting through. Both Boller and Rosenvold had vanished from the ownership of the family Rosenkrantz only eight years after the death of the rich Karen Gyldenstierne, and the new owner, who was a widow after Ludvig Munk of Nørlund (+1602), could join an imposant estate to her other considerable properties.

She did not own Boller and Rosenvold for many years, and she had to give it up under sad circumstances, caused by her own flesh and blood. The break between her daughter, Kirsten Munk and Christian IV caused among other things that the king after in vain having asked for Boller and Rosenvold commanded Ellen Marsvin "without any trouble" to give the estates to her daughter. Nothing is known why the king had disposal of the estates, as if he was the owner; perhaps had he given Ellen Marsvin money to buy Boller and Rosenvold for her daughter instead of another promise about a vasalry, but the order of cession was from 1. May 1630. Ellen Marsvin had to follow order, but tried to rescue as much as possible for herself, she took both the large furniture and movables, and broke down from the building what she could bring with her.

Chr. IV wanted in this way to stop his mistress Kirsten Munk from making trouble. When she left the king in January 1630 she went from one family to another in order to intrigate; the king intervened and put a stop to it by the mentioned arrangement, and he also referred to that it was harmful to their children that she behaved like this. Furthermore he had given her the promised vasalry, and on 13. April Kirsten Munk arrrived at Boller castle. The day after her arrival she wrote to bishop Morten Madsen in Århus, who had been a teacher for her children, that God had really to help her, for there was a terrible mess and filth at Boller, and she asked him to bring duvets and sheets, for there were only a "little to eat and nothing to sleep on". But it seems she soon got things into shape in her forced residence, for the king later wrote that "she is sitting at Boller and Rosenvold like a mighty princess".

She was not allowed to leave the two manors, but partly was the king's ban later relieved, and partly she went on various travels without permission, which meant house arrest for her at Boller under close guard. After some strange interrogations of her about her relationships to the king and the Rheingraf she was in 1635 locked up at Stjernholm for several months. Her stay on a ship at Horsens was just as much against her will, when she had to flee from the Swedes, who were said to have stolen some of her possessions at Boller.

From the Japanese garden

From the fuchsia garden and the rose garden

The Japanese garden and the old oak tree.

From the rose garden

The ownership of the large estate, which Kirsten Munk had inherited from her mother, made her able to lead a carefree life economically. As a landowner she bought much land for the Boller-estate and established a hospital at Uth church, where the maintenance was ever since paid from Boller, and in 1635 she founded a capital for Horsens kloster church. She was told to be a pious and devout woman and a good landlady for her staff. In 1658 she had a stroke and sent for her favorite daughter Leonore Christine, who came to Boller, but she was not with her mother, when she died shortly after. Her body was brought to Sct. Knud's church in Odense.

Five years after Kirsten Munk's death Boller was still in the ownership of her heirs, but was then laid out to the important businessmen Albert Baltzer Berns and Leonhard Marselis as a payment for debts of her late son grev Valdemar Christian. In 1664 it went to Mogens Friis of Favrskov and Frijsenborg. In 1844 it came under this county, while the manor Rosenvold already in 1660 was out of its 100-year old connection to Boller by a sale to gehejmeråd, stiftamtmand Henrik Rantzau. In the owner-community with Frijsenborg Boller became a part of the county and lost its independent mark. Christine Sophie Reventlow, a widow after the county's second owner Niels Friis, had Boller and Møgelkær as a life-ownership. Its third owner Christian Friis decided in 1760 that the two manors had to be a dower house for man and woman, but they had to be administered from Frijsenborg.

Among later owners were i.e. greve Jens Christian Carl Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs, who in 1849 took up residence at Boller after having given the northern part of the county to his son greve Christian Emil, who withdrew in 1882 to Boller, where he died in 1896. After this the manor had no permanent resident, and the main building was only used in huntings and other short visits from the county-owner and his family. After the county's transfer to free property in 1920 and lensgreve Mogens Friis' death in 1923 Boller was laid out with land and forests to his daughter lensgrevinde Agnes Louise Bernstorff-Gyldensteen. She sold the estate in 1930 to the Danish state.

The forests and the park were now "Boller Statsskovdistrikt", and the main parcel was sold to proprietær ("large farmer") Hans P. Andreasen. The rest of the land was outparcelled into small-holders. After a fire in 1937 the main parcel was also outparcelled into small-holders. The main building was sold by the state in 1930 to Sygekasserne (sick-benefit associations) in Horsens, Kolding and Skanderborg, an the castle was changed into a convalescense-home. The Sygekasserne sold in 1965 Boller castle to Horsens kommune (municipality).

The main building of Boller stands at its castle bank, surrounded by broad moats, but it is not marked by the first strong medieval castle-building or by the later fine castle or palace, but is more like a common manor, firmly plant upon the ground. The northern wing is the earliest. In its original look the large house had two storeys; there are no traces of towers. In the middle of the bottom storey is a hall, where the supporting pillars partly derive from a Romanesque church, and rests of Romanesque building-parts are found elsewhere in the main building. According to materials, walls and constructions the wing is late Gothic, maybe from ab. 1550 and maybe built by Holger Rosenkrantz. The materials from Sejet church was not only used at Uth church, but also at Boller.

On the eastern wing is an inscription, where Holger Rosenkrantz' widow fru Karen Gyldenstierne announces that she built this house in 1588. On both sides of the pillar-hall are Renaissance-vaults, and the eastern gable room is furnished into a kitchen with a monumental-chimney, one of the finest kitchen-rooms in any Danish manor. The two other wings are in their present look from the 18th century. During time they had become so dilapidated that they were rebuilt as new brick-built houses in 1759 with new, modern rooms. The entrance gate is at the west wing. The garden is very large and pretty. Among the sights worth seeing is a several centuries old oak. A lime tree was so big that Christian VIII, who in 1844 resided at Boller, is said to have set the table for 180 persons below the tree. It has now been cut down.

Source: Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 15, Fra Århus til Kolding, 1967, "Boller" by museumsinspektør P. Westergård.

photo Boller slot 2002/2008: grethe bachmann

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Rye church / Rye kirke, Tyrsting herred, Skanderborg amt.

Rye church, 12 km northwest of Skanderborg
Rye sogn, Tyrsting herred, Skanderborg amt.

Rye church has a late Gothic longhouse with a modern porch to the north and a free-standing tower from 1912 east of the choir gable. The present late Gothic building is only a fragment of an almost cathedral-like church, and its complicated history all through the Middle Ages has its background in the pilgrimage to Sct. Sørens Kilde (spring) in Rye Sønderskov. At the place of the present church stood a small Romanesque church in granite boulder, granite ashlars and hard pan. This modest building was in the 1400s extended in several stages with a three-sided choir section, cross arms with three-sided altar rooms, with the now present nave, which was built in two building periods and finally with a large tower, which against usual custom was placed at the eastern end of the choir instead of the three-sided altar section - and with a new main altar under the tower vault. Thus the building achieved a full lenght of about 52 m and a broadth across the cross arms of 33 m. After the stop of the pilgrimages at the reformation the large building declined, and in 1637 -39 the "cross churches" were broken down. The upper section of the tower was damaged by fire in 1660, and in 1699 it was removed together with the eastern section of the church up to the present choir gable, which at this point was re-walled with various material, among others with several ashlars from the Romanesque building.

The present longhouse building is, except the eastern gable, built in red monk bricks in two halfs. The earliest from the first half of the 1400s are the two eastern bays with plinth of re-used granite aslars -below the cornice is a four-leaf clover frieze in black-glazed stones. To the north and south are walled-in pointed doors and large profiled pointed windows, partly out-walled with cast iron frames in the 1800s. Two cross vaults are from the first building period. Two buttresses stand by the western gable, while the others have been removed, they are traceable in the wall work. The small porch at the north door was built in the end of the 1800s. Upon the foundations of the old choir-tower was in 1911-12 built a new free-standing tower in large hand-made stones and with a high pyramid roof, designed by architect Hack Kampmann. In connection to the tower building was digged up the foundation of the disappeared eastern section, which is now marked as banks in the terrain.

The altar piece is a fine carved work in late Renaissance from 1630, put up by Herman Hansen and Anna Nielsdatter, Rye mølle(mill), with a painting from 1882. It was repaired in 1930. Old paintings from the 1700s hang in the church. Altar chalice from 1686 with the coat of arms of Ahlefeldt and Urne and the initials H. AF.-H.W. Two small, but heavy late Gothic candelabres, resting upon lion figures ; a larger candelabre, also late Gothic, was later equipped with 6 light-arms. Rests of an altar cloth with silver-embroidered year 1787 is preserved. A Gothic thurible from the beginning of the 1400s. A late Gothic, fine, but very skinny choir arch-crucifix from ab. 1520. A Romanesque granite font with lions of the Låsby-Vinderslev type, placed upon a new foot. A Netherland basin ab. 1625. The pulpit is a simple and heavy Renaissance work from 1632. Church ship: the brig "Johanne" from 1897. In the tower is a clockwork, which originally came from Frederiksborg slotskirke.

There are several grave memorials in the church. From Øm kloster two late Gothic grave stones: 1) portrait stone from ab. 1490, placed by abbot Christiern for bishop Svend, + 1191, a year 1183 refers to the bishop's will in favour of the kloster. 2) the last abbot of Øm kloster, Petrus Severinus (Peder Sørensen), + 1554, with emblem shield. In the wall of the tower is inserted a figure stone over Jens Hansen, Rye mølle, + 1665. It was found during the tower building. In the bottom room of the tower is preserved a grave tree, shaped like a tree trunk. Earlier were several like this in the church yard. Another is in "Den Gamle By" (Old Town) in Århus.

Øm kloster's (* ab. 1170 Carainsula, Øm, 1219, Øm) earliest history was written down by some monks in 1207-67: Exordium Carae Insulae, and is one of the most captivating Danish papers from the Middle Ages (translated by Jørgen Olrik in 1932). Ab. 1160 bishop Eskil of Århus agreed with abbot Henrik of Vitskøl (Vitae Scholae) to establish a Cisterciensian kloster in Århus stift.(district). It was established 16/2 1165 in Sminge, but the conditions were not good, and in 1166 the monks moved to the decayed Benedictine kloster in Veng, but here they were harrassed by an aristocratic lady and moved in 1168 to Kalvø. At last they found a permanent place in 1172 upon the landtongue, which separates Gudensø (lake ) from Mossø (lake). Here was Øm kloster established, consegrated to Virgin Mary and named cara insula, "the dear island". The first three abbots came from England, Germany and France and were closely connected to Vistskøl kloster, the abbot was Gunnar (1216-22), who later became bishop in Viborg and is remembered for his work with Jyske Lov (Jutland law) from 1241 (Valdemar Sejr's Jyske Lov). The Århus bishops Svend (+ 1191) and Peder Elafsøn (+ 1246) supported the kloster, and the last mentioned was buried in the new church, which at this time replaced the earliest buildings.

view from Rye church

Shortly after a feud started with the bishopric about the bishop's right to visit the kloster. This culminated in that the bishop in Veng church excommunicated abbot Bo and everyone, who addressed him abbot, whereafter the abbot at once stood up and released all from the excommunication. The abbot was supported by the pope, but the bishop by the king and the queen dowager. The chronicle ends here unfortunately, before the feud was settled, but probably has the kloster been forced to acknowledge the bishop's right to visit, whereafter the king in return acts as the protector of the kloster in 1270.

After the end of the chronicle (Exordium Carae Insulae) were only informations about the abbots and the estate history of the kloster. It was one of the richest manor klosters in the country, and it had estates far and wide. After the reformation Øm kloster was still in the management of an abbot, but from 1538 the Sorø-abbot had the supervision. In 1560 Øm kloster came under Bygholm (castle), and the buildings were changed into the royal castle Emborg, where Frederik II stayed for long periods in 1559-61. Emborg had to become a main residence in Jutland, but however the king preferred Skanderborg (castle), and 6/10 1561 he commanded that Emborg church and other attached buildings had to be demolished, and the materials had to be used in the re-building of Skanderborg slot. In 1565 Holger Rosenkrantz of Boller was allowed to break down a stable in Emborg, where the king's own horses had been and an attached house. Upon the place of the farm buildings were soon built peasant farms, and in 1571 the king began to rent the land of Emborg to the peasants. There was now only a chapel left from Øm kloster, where Verner Hess lived. This and an attached kålgård (cabbage garden) was given to his widow Marine Lauridsdater in 1579 as a life's letter. (to have for life)

The kloster site is situated low between Mossø (lake) and Gudensø (lake) to the north, to the east and west flanked by two parallel channels, which are still traceable, and which brought water from Mossø to Gudensø, giving water power to the kloster. An outer channel is mostly preserved. The place was used as a quarry, and after this the walls above the earth had disappeared. When the National Museum in 1896 made a small test excavation were found a couple of medieval graves, but not until Historisk Samfund (society) of Århus stift in 1911 had bought a part of the site, some yearly excavations began. The first was paid by the society, later by the National Museum, and partly by special supports from the State. The foundations of the kloster-complex were found in good state and could be recovered, a complete ground plan arose showing to be the most complete plan known of a Danish Cisterciensian kloster.

view from Rye church

The ground plan shows a kloster site from the middle of the 1200s. There were not found rests of the earlier buildings from 1172. Only granite boulder foundations are preserved with few rests of monk brick wallwork. To the north was the church, a three-naved cross church. Both cross arms had two chapels to the east and one to the west. In the southwest corner was a heavy foundation from a tower - since the church in spite of the Cisterciensian building rules - had a tower. There were 18 medieval graves in the church, like the Århus bishop Svend's (+ 1191) with a gold ring, silver cross and thuribles, abbot Mikkel's (+ 1246) grave and the Århus bishop Peder Elafsøn's (+ 1246), and a grave ascribed to the abbot Jens, known from the chronicle. In an economy building were traces of kitchen and bakery. The southern wing had a refectorium. 4 wells were excavated. There were many various buildings on the site and outside the channels were also found rests of various buildings, i.e. like a tail oven and a larger house.

For keeping of the excavated building parts etc. has Historisk Samfund in 1922-23 built a house, open to the public. The collection has from Alken and Skanderborg received several valuable granite-fragments, which origin from Øm kloster. Besides are in the small museum an exhibition of skeletons and parts of skeletons found in the excavations. In 1939 was at Øm raised a memorial stone for bishop Gunnar, whose life story was told by a monk from Øm.

In 1890-1933 were found 37 scattered coins from Valdemar II Sejr - Christian III.

In Øm kloster was a school, and when it was abandoned in 1560 Frederik II moved a corn tax from 10 parishes to a school in Århus as a support for 24 poor pupils.

In Rye was a royal hunting cottage under Skanderborg vasalry; it is often mentioned up till 1600, and 1573 and 1576 were royal letters issued from here. In 1617 ordered Chr. IV to break it down. The Crown had several workmen in the area; the king's coach builder in Rye is mentioned 1553; in 1582 established Frederik II a glass hut, where glaziers from Hessen worked; several place names still remind of the glass fabrication.

Rye mølle is mentioned from 1578, and the famous eel-fishing is mentioned already at that time.

Rye was an important town in the Middle Ages, which was mainly due to Øm kloster, and its importance was increased by its holy springs, Skt Sørens kilde at the entrance of Sønderskov, Præstekilden in Rye Nørreskov, Helligkilde south of the road going west of Rye and Hans kilde at Rye school. As a pilgrimage place is Rye mentioned already in 1405. The town was known for two meetings in 1534, on 4/6 met the Jutland councillors and offered hertug Christian their support, and 4/7 were the Jutland council meeting the Jutland nobility and delegates from the Funen nobility, and in spite of resistance from the bishops Mogens Gøye had Chr. III elected king. The town was supposedly a town with municipal rights, it is mentioned in 1536 as such. In Rye were the two yearly markets - which had moved from Rye to Horsens in 1579 - again moved back to Rye 1579. In 1616 is a market mentioned on Valborgsdag (Valburgis), in 1683 the markets moved to Skanderborg. Rye suffered large fires, i.e. in 1613, 1628 and 1660.

Listed prehistorics: 21 hills. In Rye Nørreskov is a group of 3 hills and in Rye Sønderskov two groups, each with 5 hills.

Names from the Middle Ages and 1600s:
Rye (Gammel Rye, o. 1400 Rythe, 1486 Ryde); Emborg (* 1561 Emsborrig, 1571 Emborg); Rye Mølle (1610 Rymølle) .

Demolished or destroyed: a longdolmen and two stone graves, 4 of these graves were east of Rye town; a dolmen chamber with found two thin-necked axes was found in the forest Højrisbøge. Furthermore 86 hills.

Rye is in the classic area of the Gudenå culture, and a large number of settlements from the primitive hunting and fishing people are known; some of the most important settlements are i.e Svejbæklund, Emborg bro (bridge), Provstholm Hoved, Povlsbakke, Lindholm hoved. A settlement from early Roman Iron Age is known from Rye.

Source: Trap Danmark, Skanderborg amt, 1964.

photos 2006-2008: grethe bachmann

Tuesday, September 07, 2010

Eskjær, Salling, North Jutland, Viborg amt.

Eskjær, ab. 18 km north of Skive
Grinderslev sogn, Nørre herred, Viborg amt.

Eskjær was mentioned the first time in written sources in 1328, where hr. Jacob Nielsen (Gyldenstierne) of Eskjær is mentioned. The farm was later in the ownership of the family Banner. Eskild Nielsen and Peder Høg (Banner) are mentioned as owners in the middle of the 1400s. The last mentioned's son Niels Pedersen Høg became the owner of the farm. He was a wellknown man of that period. He is mentioned as rigsråd in 1487, and both king Hans and his son Christiern II used him often as public delegate. According to the Skibby Chronicle he was known as a priest-hater. Besides his public assignments Niels Høg had also time for his private interests. During the first ten years of the 16. century he gathered gradually large estates, a big part was in the neighbourhood of Eskjær. It seems he had achieved sole rights of Eskjær, although a thing-witness from 1501 indicates that his rights were denied by others.

At Niels Høg's death in 1524 his daughter Anna inherited Eskjær; she was married to Niels Jensen Rotfeld, who in 1540 transferred the farm to his son Jens Rotfeld. After his death as the last male member of the family Eskjær came to his sister Johanne, who was a widow after Hans Lykke of Havnø. She managed the farm until her death in 1577, and the son Erik Lykke took over. His son Hans Lykke got after his father's death in 1602 into a debt up to his ears; the farm was taken over by the creditors and forever taken from the Lykke-family. The new owner was Verner Parsberg, who died in 1643, and his son Niels Parsberg, married to Helle Gyldenstierne, was not an economic genius. He had to pawn Eskjær, and in 1664 it came to grev Christian Rantzau's heirs. At that time was Eskjær a large estate.

Eskjær was in 1674 incorporated into grevskabet (county) Løvenholm, but already in 1681 it was back in the ownership of the family Parsberg, since a son of the former owner, oberst Verner Parsberg, bought it. He sold however the farm in 1698 to Barbara Rantzau, but when he after the sale married the buyer, who brought him considerable riches, the sale had no practical importance. Verner Parsberg was also the owner of Skivehus, and he managed both this and Eskjær until his death in 1719. In the anecdote-litterature he was called a stupid and ignorant landjunker. (junker = German nobleman)This was undoubtedly not true; on the contrary he was one of the most active landlords in the district and one of few from the old nobility, who was able to maintain his position and also improve status in the tough times after 1660. After his death both estates were taken over by his son, ritmester Johan Parsberg, who died in 1730 the last male member of the family. He left both estates in a disrepaired state.

After Johan Parsberg Eskjær was taken over in 1735 by his stepfather gehejmeråd, president in the Supreme Court Claus Reventlow, who probably never resided at the decayed farm. He owned several manors. In 1790 he sold Eskjær to a former tenant at Krastrup, Mads Hastrup, who was the first middle-class owner. Hastrup succeeded in bringing the farm on its feet again before his death in 1761. He was also the building master of the present main building, which was built in 1761. Below the main wing in the cellar are still rests of a late Gothic building with thick walls. The cellar room has eight small cross-vaults upon three heavy, walled middle pillars. After a local legend these cellar rooms were the whereabouts of the three known witches "Thise Trolde", until they after the judgment were burned at the stake.

After Mads Hastrup's death in 1767 Eskjær was sold at auction to major Johan Chr. v. Geistler, who was married to a Lüttichau of Tjele. He was from an old German officer's-family, but he was not a skilled farmer, and he became gradually much indebted. In 1781 he sold Eskjær to the later justitsråd and generalkrigskomissær Christian Lange, who was one of that time's progressive men in agriculture and a son of another outstanding farmer, justitsråd Jens Lange of Rødkilde. He improved the neglected farm. All operations were changed, and he made some reforms of the estate in two cities/villages, where he was the sole owner. But it was not easy for him in the other part of the estate. He was involved in feuds with the other farmers, and he also insulted the peasants with his reform-eagerness.

Lange was eventually fighting with his peasants about the villeinage and the taxes, and in the posterity he was known as a bondeplager (harassing the peasants) He cheated the peasants when he measured the corn, he moved their field boundaries, and because of these misdeeds he had according to the old legend no rest in his grave; he haunted the farm, he slammed the doors and he was seen running in the Gåsemosen (moor) with the surveyer-sticks. A special legend is connected to Langesgård, which was built by him. According to royal statutory his peasants denied to bring the tax-corn to the end of the road, and when they discovered that their delivery -duty ended in the middle of Eskjær Mark (field), they just loaded the corn here. Lange swore an oath that the peasants had to bring the corn to the barn, and when this oath could not be fulfilled, he let build a barn above the unloaded corn. This barn was said to be the first beginning of Langesgård.

In 1797 Chr. Lange sold Eskjær and Langesgård to justitssekretær in Viborg, etatsråd Henrik Johan de Leth and Thomas Thomsen of Østergård, who in the following year left the common ownership and took over Langesgård. Leth sold all the peasant-property, but in 1828 the Danish state took over the farm as the holder of an unsatisfied mortgage. In 1830 was Eskjær bought by kammerråd A.C. Grønbech, and after his death it came to baron Joseph Emil Adeler. He sold in 1869 Eskjær to cand.jur. Ludvig Th. Schütte of Bygholm, after whose death in 1915 the farm was inherited by his son dr. phil Gudmund Schütte, who gave the main building a thorough restoration and built a new farm building. The area was increased, and the forest of Eskjær - which is the only worth mentioning in Salling - was re-planted. In 1953 Gudmund Schütte (+ 1958) transferred the estate to his son, Herluf Schütte, who bought more estate for Eskjær.

Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 12, Nordvestjylland, Eskjær, af mag. art Svend Egelund.

foto Eskjær 2004: grethe bachmann

Saturday, August 28, 2010

Østergård, Salling, North Jutland, Viborg amt.

Østergård, ab. 19 km north of Skive
Åsted sogn, Harre herred, Viborg amt.

Queen Margrethe I spent the first half of the year 1408 in Jutland, where she with a large entourage of trusted men went from place to place. Whereever she came, new crowds of clericals and secular gentlemen joined her entourage for a shorter or longer period, partly to bask themselves in her favour , partly to settle important business, which was not always of the most pleasant sort. In the month of January the queen stayed in the old royal town Viborg. From here she crossed Thy, where she guested Ørum castle and the now long gone Hillerslevhus - and after having visited Børglum Kloster she arrived in Hjørring in the month of March, from where she continued her travel south to Ålborg, Randers and Århus. At Midsummer-time queen Margrethe was back at Zealand, probably very satisfied with the achieved results. She had won back much royal estate, which was lost during the turbulent times, and she had secured the friendship of the clergy by giving them costy gifts.

Among those who had to show up at the meeting with the queen in Viborg was "Niels Mikkelsen of Nissum, a knight called Krabbe" - he probably did not meet up voluntarily, since he had much on his conscience. His men had broken the church-peace at Kobberup church, and he had himself together with his maternal uncle Niels Kaas and several others repeatedly broken the thing-peace on Fjends herreds Thing. (district-thing.) He therefore had to make amend, but the "the gracious Lady" let him go, if he gave her some estate in Fiskbæk and elsewhere, which unlawfully had been taken from the Crown. If hr. Niels could have lived for another 100 years, he would have enjoyed to see that one of his descendants, rigsmarsk hr. Tyge Krabbe won back this estate by not so fine means - his greatgrandfather would probably have liked that.

Hr. Niels Krabbe returned to Nissum very bad tempered, it was not the first time the queen had been pursuing him. His fortificated castle could not secure him against her and his mighty family neither. The castle was placed north in Salling. The theory is that the small square castle bank, rising steeply from the slope east of Hinnerup Å (river) at Åsted village, which later was called Holmshøj or Sallingholm castle, was his home. It is not easy to see, why he is called "from Nissum", since this village is placed upon the other side of the river and earlier was divided from Holmshøj by both a river and a meadow. From the castle bank a road dam leads northwest out into the meadows where still are seen weak rises ; here were found heavy, driven in poles - the rests of a pile castle, which might have been the successor of the castle bank inland.

The family Krabbe is old in Salling, where it besides Nissum or Østergård owned several manors, like Lundegård at the island Fur, Hostrup, Bustrup, to which the rigsmarsk (Tyge Krabbe) wrote himself, and several others, aldso Krabbesholm. Much indicates that the old members of the family was an unruly and violent flock, who reminded about the family Brock at Gammel Estrup. This nature is also recognizable in the family's most distinguished member Tyge Krabbe, but else made the family their mark by indisputable competence and later also by having spiritual interests. The family was connected to Nissum for a long period. Niels Mikkelsen Krabbe was hardly the first member of the family who lived there - the earlier generations are fairly known - but he wasn't the last. Both his son Morten Krabbe, who was a High Court Judge and owned a rich estate, (+ ab.1483), and his son Glob Krabbe, also named Lucas Krabbe, lived in Nissum, but the old castle was abandoned. Glob Krabbe established the farm (manor) Østergård south of Åsted upon the other side of the river and built the heavy Gothic building, which still stands today. It is one of few manor buildings from the time before the reformation, which has kept its look almost unchanged up till the present.

The manor was built upon a flat, square bank, surrounded by banks and moats, which were kept water-filled by dams. The building is four-winged and includes a small yard, only 8,75 m each square. It is built in late Gothic style in bricks upon a high plinth of raw granite boulder and with a cellar under the whole two-storeyed building. It is said that an inscription was upon a beam in the yard saying that Lucas Krabbe put down the first stone for this foundation in 1516. On the gables of the south wing were earlier a couple of hanging bays , possibly "hemmeligheder" (secrets = toilets). Behind the 2-3 feet thick walls the unruly Krabbes could feel secure towards wronged class companions and peasants. When the peasants in Grevefejden (civil war) ravaged in Salling and let "the red cock"crow (fire) on the castles of their oppressors, they probably also wished to chase the squire of Østergård away from his home, but if they tried to, they probably failed. Later was no need to have a fortificated castle like this, but banks and moats were kept until the 19th century. Now is only a small rest left.

Glob Krabbe died a few years after the reformation (1543)and was buried in Åsted church, where his wife was also buried, and where a head stone reminds them. He had feuds with his peasants till the end. Their son Iver Krabbe (+ 1561), who in his youth had the family's hot blood in his veins, became a rich man, rigsråd and the holder of several important vasalries. He and later his widow bought much estate in exchange with the Crown. This estate was situated near the farm, and he also achieved free birkeret (judicial rights) of all estate in the parish a year before his death. This right followed Østergård until 1688. He probably built the last two wings of the manor.

After his death his widow fru Magdalene Banner kept the farm, she followed her husband to the grave in 1597 and was buried by his side in Åsted kirke. She had given vaults and a new pulpit to the church. It seems that she before her death gave Østergård to her daughter Anne Krabbe, who from 1580 was widow after rigsråd Axel Viffert and later was married to Erik Kaas of Vorgård in Himmerland (+ 1598). She died childless in 1625, but the heirs did not accept the inheritance. Østergård was not taken over by strangers though, it came to her sister's daughter Otte Lindenov of Borreby's widow Anne Tygesdatter Brahe, (+ 1636), and when her son Otte Ottesen Lindenov's widow fru Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk (+ 1645) - who had a livsbrev (ownerrights for life) on the farm - in 1639 married hr. Knud Ulfeldt of Svenstrup, who was killed in the war 1657, the farm came to him and then to his stepson, kammerherre Christian Lindenov,who was amtmand (district) in Norway and the last of the Krabbe-descendants who owned the old family-farm.

Åsted church

Østergård was in a bad state after the war; 9 farms in Nissum village were destroyed. Christian Lindenov pawned Østergård to the wellknown priest at Vor Frue Kirke in Copenhagen, magister Erik Olufsen Torm, whose widow Søster Worm, a daughter of the famous professor Ole Worm, in 1673 took over farm and estate, which was confirmed by the Supreme Court two years later. The saga of the old nobility was over, and middle-class families moved into Glob Krabbe's old castle. During the latest century it had often been uninhabited and neglected, sometimes owned by people, who lived far away, and sometimes by poor people, who could not pay their bills. Søster Worm managed the farm by a tenant, and after her death in 1685 it came to her son-in-law Jens Henriksen, but times were unfortunate, and he ended up in big debts. He had to pay his peasants with corn and give them horses. This was expensive and he never got anything back.

In 1694 Jens Henriksen had to give up. He sold Østergård to tenant Anders Hansen Høyer at Astrup. He was an indebted man, who had 19 children with three wives, whom he hardly could give food and clothes. He stayed however at the farm until his death in 1727, and the estate went to one of his creditors, the rich mayor Christen Jensen Basballe in Århus, who let it manage by a tenant for about 20 years. It was said that when he grew old, he was so stingy that corn and bullocks piled up at the farm, because he wanted over current price for both this and that. After his death Østergård had several owners. In 1758 it was sold to Niels Andersen Qvistgård.

Qvistgård died only 5 years later, and his widow Johanne Marie Batum brought the farm to her second husband Christian Kjærulff, who in vain tried to sell it. When both he and his wife had died in 1777 in Nykøbing (Mors), where they lived for several years, Østergård was bought by his stepsons Jens og Anders Nielsen Qvistgård. The last mentioned was sole owner in 1786, since Jens had bought a farm in Himmerland. Anders Qvistgård was dependent on alcohol and once caused a scandal when drunk in Åsted kirke, but else he was seemingly a solid Jutland farmer, who took care of his estate and tried to introduce improvements. In order to have disposal over the water - which run in abundance through his meadows and moors - he outbought at a costy expense the copyholder of Nissum Water Mill and let it replace by a wind mill. This showed to be a profit, but else were his improvements hardly radical enough.

Farm buildings close to Østergård, disfiguring the old medieval castle
The ferry to the island Fur north of Åsted and Østergård.

The farm was managed by villeinage until 1805, when all the estate was sold. The main part was already in Iver Krabbe's time in Åsted parish, another part in the neighbouring parishes. While the estate was still complete, the added tiender (taxes) changed all the time. Knud Ulfeldt had a couple of churches added to the farm in 1640, but they were lost in 1673. In 1699 Anders Høyer got a deed on Åsted kirke from the king, but this did not follow the farm permanently. Anders Qvistgård owned the kirketiender (church taxes) of Åsted and Nautrup parish and held the royal taxes of the same parishes, but in 1806 only the two churches were part of the farm. Anders Qvistgård died already in 1792; the following year farm and estate came on auction and sold to Thomas Thomsen of Vindum Overgård. He had moved to Jutland from Funen some years ago, and he gradually became the owner of several big farms in Jutland.

In the beginning of the following century it was told that Østergård, Eskjær and Astrup were the only manors in Salling with a dairy. Thomsen had been a co-owner of Eskjær, the other part belonged to his relative. In 1804 Thomsen sold the whole estate, for which he had paid rigsdaler, to three speculators, who paid 100.000 rigsdaler. After a royal licence they sold the copyhold-estate and let in 1806 the main farm and the taxes go back for 56.500 rigsdaler to the previous owner, who kept it until his death in 1823, after which the wellknown studefeder (he was making bullocks fat!) Nis Nissen of Spøttrup became the owner. After him followed kammerråd Hans Tørsleff (1836-46). During the next 100 years the farm had several owners: kammerherre Ernst Emil Rosenørn (1855-71), Johan Chr. Brinck-Seidelin (1871-85), Erik Oscar Julius Hedemann of Nyholm (1885-90), Vallø Stift, who sold it in 1906 to lieutenant Axel Lemming Froberg, who owned Østergård for more than 36 years , until he sold it in 1943 to greve Adam Cyrille Knuth, Hesselbjerg. In 1945 Østergård was bought by a consortium, where J.M.Skov became the sole owner. Owners in 1966 Kristen and Kjeld Skov.

Source: Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 12, 1966, Nordvestjylland, Østergård, by arkivar, cand.mag. S. Nygård.

Østergård i dag:
In the summer 1998 was the Danish State ready to take over the very decayed buildings. Restorations started in June 2000 with an expected finish in the castle's 500 years jubilee in 2016!

photo Østergård og Åsted 2004: grethe bachmann

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Tørring church / Tørring kirke, Skodborg herred, Ringkøbing amt.

Tørring Church ab. 6 km west of Lemvig
Tørring sogn, Skodborg herred, Ringkøbing amt.

The high-placed church in Tørring has a Romanesque choir and nave with a late Gothic tower to the west. The Romanesque building is built in granite ashlar with double plinth. Both doors are bricked-up, besides are two bricked-up windows, one in the south wall of the nave, another in the choir to the north. In the south wall of the choir is a low-placed "spedalskhedsvindue"(leprosy-window) formed by two monolit cover stones. In the south wall of the nave are besides several ashlars with stone mason fields a stone with a pretty engraved cross. The original choir arch has profiled kragbånd. The nave has a beamed ceiling, and in the choir was built a cross vault in the late Gothic period. The late Gothic tower is built in monk bricks, re-used ashlars and granite boulders; it has a cross vaulted bottom room, which is furnished as a porch, since the pointed tower arch is out-walled with a door. A very low flat-curved door in the northeast corner of the room leads to the stair tower. The walls of the tower are mostly face walled, but the north gable still stands with six cut højblændinger(blænding = drawn-back area) and visible foot timber. At the reformation was in the north side of the nave inserted large flat-curved windows while the south side are from the late 1800s, when the gable top of the choir was re-walled in small bricks.

The communion table is covered in a panel from the middle of the 1600s with portal fields and baluster profiled pilasters. The altar piece is a simple Renaissance triptychon from 1601, given by Ove Lykke. It has paintings from 1673 in the wings. In the large field is a simple painting from ab. 1850 and in the top field a painting from 1814. A Baroque chalice from ab.1675, a Viborg-work by Peder Rasmussen. Heavy Baroque candelabres ab. 1650. A Romanesque granite font in West Jutland sepal-type. A small south German bowl ab. 1550-75 . A pulpit in Renaissance, ab. 1625, with volut pillars and portal fields, where in 1922 were painted copies of the Evangelispictures from the pulpit in Bøvling Church. Bell from 1506 with a long minuskelinscription in Latin, which mentions John the Baptist who is the saint of the church. It was probably cast by Peter Hansen. In the foot wall of the tower are two Romanesque granite grave stones and in the tower room two worn-out 1700s grave stones.

Vadskærgård belonged in the 1300s to Christiern Nielsen, who sold it to Jep Olsen Lunge. Later it belonged to Niels Friis, who is mentioned 1522, his son Godske Friis 1540-84 and his son Jørgen F. inherited the farm and bought likewise more estate for it, before he died unmarried 1661. It then went to his brothers' sons Otte Friis of Astrup and Mogens Friis, who later founded Frijsenborg and in 1662 bought Otte's halfpart of V. and some estate. In 1663 he exchanged the farm to rigsadmiral Ove Gjedde's heirs, of whom the son amtmand Knud Giedde (later of Hastrup, + 1707) became the sole owner. Later owners: Lange, Gjerum Holm, Levetzau, Dahl, Vadum, Gleerup, Andrup, Nyboe, Agger. Outparcelled by Jordlovsudvalget in the 1950s. Main parcel was owned by A. Lindemann and F. Lind Pedersen. The main building was built in 1860 by J.C. Agger.

In 1497 Søren Stygge of Søgård at Holmsland gave his rights in his farm "Sø" in Tørring sogn (parish) to Gudum kloster. In 1499 it was owned by Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz of Boller. in1770 it was under Vadskærgård.

The main farm Sø was situated at the eastern section of Hornsø, where is seen an oblong rise just at the foot of the slope. When building a border dike here were found granite boulders and monk bricks, and at the edge of the lake found oak posts. The visible traces on the spot does not tell anything about the disappeared plan's character. A little east of this was a water-mill.

Upon a field at Halgård was according to Resens Atlas found a sacred well, Hr. Rafns Kild.

In a hill, named "Trollehøy" at Gjellerø (now Gjeller Odde) was said to be found in ab. 1600 a large bunch of "lædermønter" (leather coins) and gold coins.

From disappeared farms in the parish is Stjerneborg (1581 Sternborg); Brandsgård (1642 Brandtzgaard), Sig (1664 Siig); Gamsmark ( 1664 Gamsmarck) and Bremsløv (1664 Bremszløff). Furthermore the house Kneberholm (1688 Kneberholms Huusz). Underbjerg was also earlier named Tørringbjerg (1595 Under Thøringbierigh).

The railway Vemb-Lemvig-Thyborøn runs through the parish

A railway station named Victoria Street Station

Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s:

Tørring ( 1330-48 Tiringh, 1482 Tøring); Balleby ( 1523 Bolliby, 1595 Balbye); Gransgårde (1595 Grandtzbøll, 1664 Granndtzgaard); Underbjerg ( 1642 Under bierig); Lomforbæk (1595 Lombforbeck); Søgårde ( * 1462 Søegaardtz jordt); Kokholm (1547 Kockholm); Kallesø (* 1499 Kalsøø, 1558 Kallidsøe); Vadskærgård ( * ab. 1400 Vaseker, Vasekær, 1531 Waskiergaard, Weskergord); Lykkesgård (1628 Lyckisgaard); Ager (1638 Auer); Halegård (1638 Halgaard); Eskebæk (1638 Eskibeck); Nørkær (1638 Ved Kiær); Sejbjerg (1638 Seibiere); Lindskrog (1664 Lindz Krog); Stor (1664 Stoer); Veje (1614 Veye); Poldbjerg (1604 Pølborrig, 1688 Polborre boell); Bæksgård (1638 Begsgaard); Lovmandsgård ( 1549 Mattis Laamannds gaardt, 1638 Loumandsgaard); Hummersgård (1549 Las Hommers gårde,1638 Hummersgaardt).

Listed prehistorics:
18 hills, mainly on the hills north and east of Tørring Church, partly east and southeast of Kokholm. Several are rather large, like: 3 hills, i.e. Bavnehøj north of the church, Kløvenhøj at Kokholm and 3 hills west of Kallesø.
Demolished or destroyed: 27 hills. - In the small moor Sortkær southeast of Kallesø was found a clay vessel with 1800 amber pearls from the beginning of late Stone Age. In a hill at Nr. Kokholm was found a very rich grave from early Bronze Age, with sword and skaftehulsøkse ( axe) in bronze.

Source: Trap Danmark, Ringkøbing amt,1965.

photo Tørring kirke/ Thyborøn jernbane 2003: grethe bachmann