Tuesday, December 17, 2013

The Danish Church - a short Summary 1/2

Source: Niels Peter Stilling, Danmarks Kirker, Politikens forlag 2000.

I: 800-1150
Paganism and Christianity

The first misson work arrived in Denmark in the 820s, but it is not known when the actual conversion to Christianity took place. The pope ordered in 822 the archbishop of Reims, Ebbo, to preach God's word among the pagan Danes - and Ebbo came to the foot of Jutland in 823 and baptized many Danes. A few years later, probably in 826, the Danish king Harald (Harald Klak) brought the missionary Ansgar to Denmark, but they were both driven out of the country in 827.
Ansgar in Hamburg


But Christianity was being preached 20 years later in Denmark. Ansgar was in 845 on good terms with the Danish king Horik, who gave him permission to build a church in Hedeby (Haithabu). Ansgar was at this point archbishop of Hamburg. Horik was killed in a power struggle in 854, and Haithabu church was destroyed, but reopened in the 860s. Ansgar, who was called the "Apostle of the North", had the permission to build another church, this time in the important trade city Ribe. Ansgar died in 865. It is uncertain if his wooden churches remained, but the princedom in South Jutland now knew a little more about Christianity.
Viking period,cities and Hedeby

replica Viking church, Moesgaard, Aarhus, photo: gb











At the end of the 900s Christianity really spread  among the Danes. In 948 three Danish bishops took part in a church meeting at the emperor's castle in Ingelheim -  Liafdag of Ribe, Hared of Schleswig and Reginbrand of Århus - they were the last of 26 bishops who signed a letter of the 7. June 948. Those three bishops were described as being the marionettes of the Hamburg-Bremen bishop Adaldag, who was eager to get a grip of the management of the Danish bishoprics, but it was doubtful if the bishops were even connected to a church in the three cities. Their starting point might have been mission stations in or just outside the banks of the three Viking towns, Ribe, Schleswig and Århus. In the trading towns the tolerant Nordic Asatru was still thriving beside the less tolerant Christianity. In Ribe, Schleswig and Århus the first Danish churches were confirmed in the emperor's letters from the second half of the 900s.

A letter issued in Magdeburg in 965 exempts the churches in Ribe, Schleswig and Århus from taxes by the German emperor Otto I. The letter says precisely that this matter was about the church properties in the "danernes mark eller rige" (the field or kingdom of the Danes). Otto I's successor Otto III confirms the privilege 20 years later to archbishop Adaldag of Bremen, and in this is only referred to the "kongeriget Danmark" (Regno Danorum). Another church is built in Odense (Odense = Odin's castle). The emperor's letters are issued during the years 965-988, which coincide with Harald Bluetooth's rule, and they bear a strong witness that Harald in this period spread his power to most of Denmark. The agent was Christianity and forced castles: the socalled Trelleborgs, which were built with technical expertise as giant circular plans with the cross as the geometric focal point.
Trelleborg, Zealand, photo: gb

Jelling stone, photo: gb
Harald's proud inscription on the Jelling stone are not empty words. The two-piece inscription says in a modern Danish: "Kong Harald bød gøre dette minde efter Gorm sin fader og Thyre sin moder - Den Harald som for sig vandt Danmark al og Norge og gjorde danerne kristne." The first part of the inscription is obviously a memos for Harald's parents. Another hand has later carved Harald's political programme in the large stone, which has the image of the earliest Christ-figure in the North. The Danes did not become Christians simultaneously because Harald did point the way, but it is remarkable that Harald was buried - not in the starting point Jelling -  but in the newly won Sjælland (Zealand) in Roskilde. The Jellingstone is an essential evidence that something new and lasting was on its way - and  in the following generation's fight between paganism and christianity no one dared to destroy Harald's stone-lined manifesto, Danmarks dåbsattest.





Church organisation.

The plank from Hørning church, Randers
Wooden churches were built in the cities and at the magnate farms in the villages, where Christianity gained ground. The church in Jelling was built in the middle of a pagan plan, probably because of Gorm's and Thyra's burial site, but it is not certain if there was any continuity between the pagan holy places and the Christian church. Hørning church north of Århus was built as a wooden church with a gravehill as the center, and a noble lady, who died shortly before the building of the church, was resting in her gravehill under the choir of the wooden church.


coin, Cnut the Great, British Museum
The organisation of the Danish church was initiated already by Sven Tveskæg (Forkbeard) during his rule. English bishops came to Denmark, which annoyed the bishopric in Hamburg- Bremen, where they wanted to manage the development in the Danish church. Sven's successor Knud den Store (Cnut the Great) even visited the papal court in Rome, which was another new act by the royal family, who had placed itfself, not only upon the Danish, but also upon the English throne.

Børglum kloster, photo gb
The bishop of Rhine, Vale, had in the middle of the 1000s arrogated to himself the clerical reign over all of North Jutland, but at his death in 1060 King Sven Estridsen took the opportunity to divide Jutland north of Kongeåen (Kings river) into four bishoprics. Besides the two old bishoprics in Ribe and Århus a bishopric was also established in the old thing-city Viborg - and a bishopric for "øen Vendsyssel" (the island Vendsyssel). The cathedral in Vendsyssel was built in Thy, in Vestervig, but in the early 1100s it was moved to Børglum in Vendsyssel. Besides the North Jutland bishoprics was also the old bishopric in Schleswig, which in the 1000s replaced Hedeby as the trade-center of the district. The Odense bishopric at Funen was founded in the 900s, and the Roskilde church belonged to the same early epoch. In  Skåne and Dalby were established two bishoprics, Lund and Dalby, but in the beginning of the 1100s Dalby was being merged with Lund.

The Christianity got a good grip in Denmark in Sven Estridsen's rule, he was born in England and his contemporary history-writer Adam of Bremen reports that there were 300 churches in Skåne, 150 at Sjælland and 100 at Funen. He says that "the wildness had gone and that the preachers of truth are gaining ground everywhere. The altars of the idols are being demolished and churches being raised everywhere".


replica stone church, Hjerl Hede Open Air Museum, photo:gb
The archbishopric in Hamburg-Bremen was supported by the pope and made still an attempt to claim its right on the church district in Denmark, but the old Danish connections with England made their mark on the Danish church in the end of the 1000s. Some bishops were summoned from England, and the first stone masons were inspired from the other side of the North Sea. English building masters might even have raised the first stone churches in the Danish coastal areas. The relation between paganism and Christianity were still balancing on a tightrope. Most part of the church buildings in Denmark were wooden churches - and the wooden church was not necessarily placed, where the later stone church was raised.

Christian culture.

King Erik Ejegod achieved in 1103 the acknowledgement from the pope of the Danish archbishopric in Lund, which his clever father Sven Estridsen had already letter-exchanged with pope Gregor 7 in 1075. It was succeeded now and the road was cleared for a release from the German church.

Altarpiece Claus Berg, Odense, wikipedia.

Erik Ejegod's successor was his brother Niels, who reigned from 1103 - 1134. The Christianity was smouldering everywhere. A few kept letters from that time lighten the extension of the organisation and rule of the church. Lots of property was willed to the church for the sake of people's peace of soul. The English  archbishop Anselm of Canterbury congratulated the first Danish archbishop Asser with his election and admonished him not to take renegade foreign clericals in his service. The pope underlined that the bishops' taxes to the kurier, the socalled Peter's money, should be paid yearly as an uncut "gift of love". The English monk and historian Ælnoth dedicated ab. 1115 his biography about the murdered Knud den Hellige to his brother the pious king Niels, who at the same time discretely was encouraged to let his power as king decorate his brother's precious relics with gifts worthy of him, letting them increase the beauty of the holy house.  Niels did not ignore the request, but gave in the following years both estate rights and moneygifts to the Odense-church, which at that time probably became one of the richest and most
The Death of Canute the Holy, von Benzon.

magnificent churches, built over the martyr king Knud. (Canute the Holy). The question about taxes to the church, about the commitment of the priests not to get married, about the authority field of the bishops and about the mission work at Rügen were dominant parts of the letters from that period.

It is not exactly known when the first kloster was founded in Denmark, but the flowering period began with the establishment by Erik Ejegod of Sct. Knud's kloster in Odense in 1096. The first 12 Benedictine monks for the kloster came from Eversham in South England, and the bishop in Odense, Hubald, came also from England. The klosters in Vestervig, Børglum, Ringsted and Esrom were also founded before 1150. In Herrevad in Skåne  the first Cistersian kloster of the North was built

in 1144. Almost ten years later, in 1153, Esrom kloster was remade into a Cistercian kloster and developed quickly into the spiritual center of the agricultural order in the North. 
Esrom Kloster, photo: gb

Ribe Cathedral "Kathoveddøren", photo: gb
In the the same period the building of stone churches was intensified, both in the country and in the city. Archbishop Asser inaugurated the altar of Lund cathedral on June 30 1123, and at the same time began the building of the cathedral in Viborg and Ribe.

King Niels ruled for 30 years and his rule ended in murder, rebellion and civil war, also and not at least the bishops took part in the battle of Fodevig at the coast of Skåne in the summer 1134, where four bishops were killed. But in spite of this the church building continued as never before, and the kloster foundations too. Several churches were built as fortifications, as a protection against both inner and outer enemies. This were mostly the round churches at Bornholm which were meant to be a retreat for the inhabitants of the island, while the round churches in the rest of the country were a mix of God's house and a power symbol of the local magnate.

Thorsager church, Djursland, photo: gb
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Next II: 1150- 1950.

photo: grethe bachmann 
photo borrowed from wikipedia





Sunday, September 08, 2013

Jungshoved church/ Jungshoved kirke, Bårse herred, Præstø amt.


Jungshoved church, ab. 8 km southeast of Præstø( photo gb

















Jungshoved church The church at Jungshoved lies close to the shore of Jungshoved cove, just outside the castle bank of (not (demolished) Jungshoved castle. The church has a late Romanesque choir and nave from ab. 1225-50 in small limestone ashlars and monk bricks with a tall profiled plinth . In the choir is one and in the nave two bricked-in windows, visible from the loft, in the choir is a bricked-in priest's door, the round-arched door of the nave sits in a protruded portal. In the early Gothic period the nave got a western extension in limestone ashlars with a few belts of monk bricks.Its gable was rebuilt ab 1450 in monk bricks. In the late Gothic period the south side of the choir and the eastern corner of the nave had supporting columns; the choir arch was made pointed, and the choir and nave were overvaulted. North of the choir was built a vaulted sacristy in monk bricks, and north of the nave -because of the close coastline - was raised the bottom section of a tower with a western staircase-house in monk bricks, with a few limestone-ashlar belts; in front of the south door was built a porch. In the beginning of the 1600s the upper storeys of the tower were built in small stones with stepped glare gables. In 1882 the whole church got round-arched windows.
photo 2013: gb
Upon the upper walls of the nave are rests of Gothic frescoes, figures and wining leaves, older than the vaults.

Interior Altarpiece ab. 1590 by "Bårse herred's jointer", it is very re-made with an inserted plaster relif of Thorvaldsen's Christ in Emmaus. Altar candelabres 1649 with the coat of arms of the vasal Ove Gedde (Gjedde) and wife Dorte Urne. Late Gothic procession-crucifix ab. 1510-20. A square font in burnt clay with reliefs by Thorvaldsen, rest of a medieval Gotland limestone font in the porch, a Netherland baptismal dish ab. 1625. High Renaissance pulpit ab. 1605-10, from the Schrøder workshop in Næstved, with Evangelist-statuettes. Chandelier ab. 1600. Bells: 1616 by Hartvig Quellichmeyer and 1897 by Løw og søn. The tower room was furnished in the 1780s as a burial chapel for the Brockenhuus family, above the door a stone tablet with the coat of arms of Brockenhuus and Holstein. In the chapel two similar sarchophagus in Norwegian marble, made in 1787-88 by Johs Wiedewelt. Here rest the district commander Hendrick Adam Brockenhuus (+ 1803) and wife Elisabeth, née Holstein Ledreborg (+ 1786).

Jungshoved, small marina downside church and bank 2013: gb
Jungshoved manor. In Valdemar Jordebog is mentioned "junxhoulæth". From chiefs and vasals are known - the earliest especially from the Hanse-recesses - ridder Otto v Budelsbak (1364-71), Henning v d.Lancken (1376), ridder Jens Rud the Elder, mEntioned 1390, gave back the vasalry in 1393, Mogens Gøye (ab. 1440), ridder Korfitz Rønnow (1474-86), Ebbe Mogensen Galt (1494- 1526), his son Anders Ebbesen Galt, with whose widow the vasalry came to her 2. husband Børge Trolle of Lillø. He was in 1571 replaced as vasal by rigshofmester Peder Oxe until (1574), among the following vasals were rigshofmester Christoffer Valkendorf (1583-87 and again 1597-1601), Mourids Podebusk, who was infamous for his brutal behavior of the peasants (1589-94) and admiral Ove Gedde (Gjedde).
Jungshoved church, 2013: gb
Chr IV had a stutteri at Jungshoved, which in 1628 was said to be very delapidated - and it suffered much damage during the Swedish wars. The manor was plundered, the woodwork burnt down and the libray-books of Jørgen Reedtz were  stolen. The local legends origin from this period, about the peasant Svend Poulsen's (= Svend Gønge)  exploits in and around Jungshoved, which formed the starting point of Carit Etlars novel "Gøngehøvdingen". In 1665 Jungshoved was deeded to greve Christoffer Parsberg, who in 1671 exchanged it for Torbenfeld. to prince Jørgen (+ 1708), Chr. V.'s brother, who had got Vordingborg district for life (form of vasalry). After the prince in 1683 had married the English princess Anne ( died in 1714 as queen of England), and had settled in England, he let his property in Denmark manage by Chr. Siegfried Plessen, in 1714 Jungshoved was taken over by the Danish Crown and was incorporated in the rytterdistrikt equestrian district of Vordingborg. The estate was in good condition, but the castle did not exist anymore. In 1761 Fr.V. sold Jungshoved and Oremandsgård to Henrik Adam Brockenhuus, who bought Nysø in 1763, with which estate Jungshoved later was united.

Jungshoved castle bank, photo:gb
Jungshoved Voldsted (Castle Bank)   In the southwestern part of the parish, close to the beach and by the inlet to a small cove between and dividing  Jungshoved parish and Allerselv parish, about 60 m south of the church, lies Jungshoved Voldsted ("Slotsbakken"), an irregular and steep, about 47 m broad and about 5 m high bank, which uneven surface covers foundations of the castle. Nothin is known about the earliest castle buildings - but once were some timbered buildings 1) "The new House" with the king's rooms 2) " The old House" with the ladies room, two bay windows and a staircase-tower with spire etc. and 3) likewise an old house with stegers=kitchen,  bryggers = scullery and some chambers, and beside and free on the 4th side was a one storey house, where the managerhad a room. The castle was probably in ruins from ab. 1660. The last building seems to be broken down in 1714, and all was left was the farm building and a manager's house. In 1717 the rest was broken down and the materials were used for stables and baraks in Vordingborg. On the actions of the National Museum was in 1894 cut a crossroad through the thicket on the almost overgrown castle bank. The foot of the bank is surrounded by an almost overgrown moat and around this is a lower bank, which south and east side again is covered by a moat, which leads out to the beach. Around the church were found building remains which were said to be from an earlier village, but they probably origin from the farm building of the castle. The castle is very old, but nothing is known about its earlier history.

Roneklint, lighthouse and entrenchment, 2013: gb
North of Roneklint lies a entrenchment by the beach "Gamle Batteri".

Jungshoved parish seems to have been an island in ancient times between Præstø fjord and the cove on the southwestern border where lie bogs and water streams - and the inhabitants call the place "Øen" ( the island) The parish, of which a part was called Smidstrup parish in the 1400s, was an independent parish with own priest, but in 1718, when the vicarage burnt down, it became an annex of the town Præstø, until it again became an independent parish in 1762.


Listed prehistorics: In Bønsvighoved skov is a long dolmen and 2 passage graves, of which one "Svend Gønges Hule" is wellkept. At Stavreby the hill Mislehøj.

Demolished or destroyed: a passage grave and 2 other stone graves, all at Bønsvig and 26 hills, of which 18 were in an oblong group east of Ambæk.

Upon low water outside Jungshoved castle bank is a settlement from Ertebøllekulturen.

Source: Trap Danmark, Præstø amt, 1955   
Text (translated) and photo Jungshoved 2013: grethe bachmann 





Thursday, July 18, 2013

Fanefjord church/ Fanefjord kirke, Mønbo herred, Præstø amt.




Fanefjord kirke, stig bachmann nielsen, naturplan.dk



Fanefjord church is one of the most important cultural and historical churches in Denmark. It lies upon a hillside at the island of Møn with a beautiful view to the fjord, which gave it its name, Fanefjord. The waters of the fjord are a section of a sound called Grønsund. From the church is a view across the waters

to the island of Falster - and the large church can be seen far and away at the western part of Møn. The placement of the church at an unusual   distance from the villages must be due to that the original church was built on royal initiative. The parish itself lies over 2 km from the church like the vicarage in Vollerup.



Fanefjord
In the bay downside the church it is supposed that the war fleet of archbishop Absalon and king Valdemar  met in the 1160s before their attack on the Wends on the other side of the Baltic Sea. Valdemar built a castle tower by Fanefjord which was never proved archaeologically, but the castle site probably hides on the south side of the bay. Here was a small, but international herring market at that time. The original church served the king and the merchants before it served the local population

Fanefjord church is famous for its frescoes from the late 1400s which are the main work of the artist known as the Elmelunde-master. The large church with two naves was built in the second half of the 1200s as a successor of a royal church (probably a wooden church)  at the castle and the market place at Fanefjord.


Fanefjord church was inaugurated to Sct. Nicolaus. It has a longhouse with  a triangular eastern finish, a tower to the west and a porch to the north, all in monk bricks. The western section of the longhouse is the over 7 m high nave from an early Gothic church from ab. 1250-1300; the longwalls are squared by slender supporting columns. In the westernest bay to the north was until 1931 kept a 3,18 m high point arched window in each wall, there were only three windows in each wall, since the next westernest bay is dominated by the doors, of which the southern is bricked-up, the northern has a pointed arch. The western gable, which is hidden by the tower, has three point arched glares, the triumph arch is pointed and upon the east side of the wall are traces from an earlier choir, which like the nave seems to have had an original vault. In three of the nave's corners are small corner columns and upon the longwalls, similar to the outer bay division, are small lisens, which do not belong to the present vault.

Considering the big broadth of the nave it is probable that it was two-naved like the church in Stege. The present 2 x 4 cross vaults, which are carried by three arcade pillars dividing the nave, are from the late 1400s - and the longhouse choir from the beginning of the 1500s. Its triangular eastern finish is possibly influenced by Stege church's latest choir plan, the polygon-corners have small supporting pillars, and to the northeast is a point arched glare, to the southeast a bricked-up window and to the south a point arched, but remade door. The polygonsides are finished by a common gable with a horisontal glare decoration. Contemporary to the choir is the remade porch and the tower, which "wrong" gables (south-north) have a mighty rise and a glare system,which reminds about the one of the choir. The vaulted tower room, which opens to the nave in two point arched arcades, has to the south a point arched window. The tower stairs lie to the north. The present round arched windows of the church origin probably from a repair in 1724. The possibly late Gothic fence-wall, which follow the edge of the church hill is broken to the south by a flat round arched portal.





The Frescoes:
When you enter the church room you are overwhelmed by the rich picture bible in the vaults and on the triumph walls. The frescoes in Fanefjord are some of the most important frescoes in a Danish church. Except the frescoes in the middle of the choir arch, which are from the 1300s, the rest of the frescoes are made by the Elmelunde-Master in the late 1400s - and the paintings in Fanefjord church are his main work. His other works can be seen in other chuches on Møn, Falster and Lolland, like in Keldby and Elmelunde etc.
His characteristica is the simple humoristic description of the biblical scenes with clothes and buildings from the 1400s - and contemporary types of people. Except for the dresses his image of people are without actual personal features. Common for each and everyone, both Christ and the simplest sinner, are the large wide eyes, which give the persons a rather simple-minded appearance. His colours are warm, especially the variations of red with details in green, yellow and black. 



pulpit

Gotland limestone font
Interior Freestanding communion table is built in monk bricks, the altarpiece was made in ab. 1630 by the jointer, who was also the master of the pulpit in Stege church, the original decoration was brought to light in 1934. A figure of Maria with child origins from ab. 1300, it is now in Stege museum. Late Gothic altar candelabres ab. 1550. An early Gothic baptismal font in Gotland limestone, a South German baptismal dish,  ab. 1550-75, a pulpit in same type as in Elmelunde church and probably by the same master, contemporary sounding board, a baldacin below it from 1934. Upon the northside of the nave and the choir are closed Renaissance pews  from ab. 1600, almost similar to the now destroyed pews in Keldby church, besides are some early and newer gable-planks from various pews, which now are in Stege museum. Iron bound moneyblock 1756, four money tablets. Bells: 1) cast 1495 by Olaf Kegge, 2) 1826 by J.C. and H. Gamst, Copenhagen.


Parish history:
In the parish was in the old days, according to a report of Hans Viborg in 1679, a chapel at Hårbølle, and here was a monument Pilgrimsstenen (Pilgrim Stone), formed like a coffin and with a cross upon each hollowed corner and probably also with a crucifix.


North of the ferry place in Hårbølle at Hestehaven is a rectangular castle bank or a fort, which to the south and east has rests of  surrounding moats.

North of Fanefjord lies the castle bank Borgsted which during 1. World War was reshaped ino a military site. It was until then only a flat oval rise (60x65) with traces of a surrounding moats, according to early descriptions there were towards land double moats with a bank between, a well was found and ceramic pieces from ab. 1300 and rests of a wooden bridge, which lead across the moat, but no foundations. This might have been the site of the castle Nyhus (Prince Vitslav's castle),  which was often confused with Stegeborg, it defended itself against the Norwegian fleet and Marsk Stig's attack in 1289. The castle was probably originally laid out for defense of the ferry place to Falster, and from the same reason was also the field-work, which is seen in the ferry-farm's garden . 


In Askeby is found a somewhat levelled castle bank Hovgården, which square castle bank 60x60 was once surrounded by moats  and probably also banks. Charcoal has been found, but no rests of buildings. According to the legend a "Kong Kat" lived here.

At the foot of the hill Præstebjerg was a sacred spring Blåkilden

In the border to Kokseby was a large carved granite boulder Pilgrimsstenen, probably the same as is mentioned in Hårbølle chapel above, to which was connected a legend about Truels' daughters from "Ridder Truels Borg" or "Kokseby Slot". It is certain that in Kokseby was a larger farm, and a farm in the village is still called "Slottet", where were found rests of walls etc. Fru Grethe Rebers (?) of Kokseby Slot was burnt on the stake in the 1400s.

In the parish was a village called Bredemad  in 1596, which in the 1600s was said to have 6 farms and 1 house. Besides is mentioned a village Pested in 1429.


Green Hunter's Hill detail.
Green Hunter's Hill (enlarge)
Listed prehistorics: south of Fanefjord church lies one of the largest long dolmens in Denmark Grønjægers Høj ( the Green Hunter's Hill) or Grønsalen (the Green Hall): 102 m long, 2 m high, with an almost flat surface , with 3 chambers, surrounded by 134 closely placed very large edge stones. According to tradition Dronning Phane ( Fane) and King Grøn (King Green) were buried here.  Upon Vollerup mark 2 dolmen chambers with cover stones , 13 hills most of them in the forests.

Destroyed: 4 long dolmens 6 indefinable dolmens, a passage grave and 73 hills.

In a moor east of Hårbølle were found 16 pretty flint daggers. In Hårbølle Hestehave was examined a burial place from late Bronze Age with ab. 40 graves.

Names from the Middle Ages: Fanefjord (ab. 1370 Fanæfyorth); Vindebæk (1513-33 Wynnæbæck, 1596 Windebeck); Hårbølle (1513-33 Harrebølle, 1596 Harbølle); Vollerup (1562 Vollerup); Kokseby (1429 Koxebye); Store Damme (1513-33 Damme, Dammæ); Tostenæs (1422 Tostenes, 1462 Tostnæs); Lerbæk (1596 Leerbeck); Askeby (1596 Askebye); Hovmarken (1429 Hovemark).

Source: Trap Danmark, Præstø amt, 1955

photo: grethe bachmann and stig bachmann nielsen, naturplan.dk

Friday, June 21, 2013

Bredstrup church/ Bredstrup kirke, Elbo herred, Vejle amt.





Bredstrup kirke, 5 km northwest of Fredericia, photo: Google Earth.

















Bredstrup church has a late Romanesque choir and nave, a late Gothic tower to the west and a porch to the south from the second half of the 1800s;  it is now furnished as a burial chapel. The late Romanesque building is mostly built in raw and cleaved granite, but with a sligthly hollow, bevelled plinth and corner ashlars. Upon the north east corner of the choir-plinth is a small male head. From original details are kept the bricked-up south door with two granite columns. The north door is only vaguely visible like a round arch window in the north wall of the nave. The choir and nave have inside flat beamed ceilings, and the choir arch is re-newed after the whole triumph wall was removed for years. The late Gothic tower has a cross-vaulted bottom room with flat-curved wall niches, and the pointed tower arch is bricked-out with a door, since they in present time, probably ab. 1920, placed the main entrance here. The tower has smooth gables east-west, and the peepholes to the north and south are flat-curved, to the east and west point-curved.  The outer walls of the tower are very bricked - the iron numbers 1870 and 1871 probably refer to these works. From this period is also the little porch to the south, now a burial chapel (in 1964).

Interior The altar piece is from ab. 1700 in a simple bruskbarok (DK 1630-1660) with winding columns and a painting from 1920 by N. Larsen Stevns. An older altar painting from the 1800s is placed in the burial chapel. The woodwork of the altar piece was repaired in 1923. Altar candelabres with a thin baluster handle upon a heavy foot and with a flat, mussel fluted light bowl, like the ones in Vejlby church (Vejle amt). They were given in 1694 by Lars Knudsen and Anne Pedersdatter in Kongsted Torp. A Romanesque granite font with a smooth basin upon a square foot. A South German dish ab. 1575. Another font with arcades upon the basin and a square foot stands in the tower room. It probably origins from Kongsted church, which was demolished in 1661. The pulpit in Renaissance from the beginning of the 1600s has biblical reliefs and upon the corners are evangelists and virtuous figures. A closed parish priest stool from ab. 1700 in the south side of the choir has a sawn acanthus work like the stool in Vejlby church. At the pulpit hangs a plaster copy of the Herlufsholm-crucifix. A gallery upon wooden columns from ab. 1730-40. Iron bound money block from the 1700s. Upon the loft lies a defect model of a threemaster. Bell from 1919, Smithske Støberier, Aalborg. Organ 1894.

Upon the church yard is an artificial grave hill with a classisistic memorial for justitsråd, mayor Hans Buhl (+ 1814).


A church in Kongsted, which according to accounts was small and without a tower and repaired in 1653, was destroyed by the Swedish soldiers in 1657 during the siege of Frederiksodde. It was later demolished acc. to the wish of the residents in 1661.  Bredstrup church was also damaged but was repaired.

Østedgård . Henning Volstrup wrote himself of Ø. in 1550, but he had probably already sold the farm to Niels Skeel of Nygård (+ 1561), who in 1548 let the farm be judged to himself on the Judicial Thing. His widow Karen Krabbe (+ 1586) exchanged in 1578 Ø. to the Crown, who in 1620 laid it out to a Captain's Farm for Johan Mor and then for Frederik Gans, whose widow married herredsfoged Thomes Terkildsen, who in 1626 got the farm as a tenant, in 1648 she transferred the farm to her son Axel Gans, who owned it still in 1653.

In 1688 jægermester in Jutland Gerhard Brockdorff (+ 1711) got a life's letter on Ø. and built the main building. In the 1700s the owner was Jobst Gerhard von Scholten, after his death in 1786 Ø. was by the Crown put on auction and sold to manager at Hvidkilde Rasmus Ejlersen. Later owners: Hartvig Fr. Wedel Jarlsberg, Ole Kongstad, Jens Lange of Rødkilde, købmand Rasmus Hansen, Heinrich August Lorentzen, Jørgen Rudolf Bech, P. Vang Lauridsen, Otto Friis Beck, Emil Pontoppidan Christiani, Dethlef Jürgensen, in 1954-1985: Henning Sally; 1985-1995: Atfed A/S / Sørn Nymark; 1995-) Nyma A/S / Sørn Nymark

The whitewashed main building is listed in class B.

Kongsted The southern section of the parish with the villages Kongsted and Torp was earlier a parish called Kongsted parish, which was an annex of Bredstrup, but in 1661 was requested that Kongsted church could be broken down and the congregation seek to Bredstrup church, since the Swedish soldiers had damaged and actually demolished the church in Kongsted; they had used the stones for their huts in the camps at Bredstrup village. Upon the site of Kongsted church are still seen few rests of wallwork. A memorial was set up in 1953. The baptismal font from Kongsted is in the garden of Bredstrup vicarage. Kongsted was laid under Bredstrup parish not until 1884. In the parish were also parts of the villages Rerslev and Husby.

There are no listed prehistorics in the parish but there were 35 hills, which mainly were placed south of Kongsted and in the northernest part of the parish, one hill contained a hellekiste (stone cist).

At Kongsted mølle (mill) was examined a settlement from early Roman Iron Age.
 
Names from the Middle Ages: Bredstrup (ab. 1330 Brestorp); Stallerup (1452 Stallerup); Kongsted (ab. 1330 Kungesteth); Torp (1541 Torp, 1591 Kongstedrop); Østedgård (1575 Ødstedt).

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.    

photo: from Google Earth. 

Thursday, June 06, 2013

Stouby church/ Stouby kirke and Rosenvold, Bjerre herred, Vejle amt.



Stouby church, ab. 15 km east of Vejle, photo: gb





















Stouby kirke
The large whitewashed church in Stouby is in its present look a Gothic longhouse building with a tower to the west and a porch to the south. From the original Romanesque travertine church is left only the northside of the nave with a late Romanesque extension to the west. A single round arch window is seen as an outside niche, the extension, which wallwork is thicker than the original wall, has in the top a frieze of narrow *lisens. In the Gothic period, probably ab. 1400-1450, the building was reshaped into a longhouse with a triangular choir finish, which in the east wall has a *firpasblænding. The high, light room has inside four cross vaults with profiled ribs and very narrow *gjordbuer and a half star vault in the choir section. The tower to the west in monk bricks is a little newer than this rebuild, and it lost its vaults at a later date - there is now a beamed ceiling in the tower room, which opens toward the nave in a new tower arch. Its upper sections are cut down till a little above the height of the nave, probably in 1817 (iron numbers  and initials for F.Rantzau). The tower stairway  is in the southwest corner of the nave. The building was restored 1877 and the porch origins from this time.

* lisens = protruding pilastres/bands
* firpasblænding = a glare similar to a fourclover
* gjordbue = a reinforcement curve of a vault


Interior: In the choir are 4 pretty mosaic windows from 1952 by Kresten Iversen. The altarpiece is a skilled carving from 1731 , it was given by Dean Jørgen Knudsen Beesche and made by Jens Jensen or Jørgen Slache. An altarpainting, copy  after Carl Bloch, hangs in the porch (1964). Chalice 1786, given by Carl Adolph Rantzau and Christiane Ernestine Frederiche Vedel. A Romanesque granite font with four horisontal angels, one is Sct Michael, fighting a monster. A pulpit in late Renaissance 1640 with old decorations. A bell from 1708, Friderich Holtzmann.




Rosenvold slot, photo: gb
Rosenvold is mentioned the first time in 1575 when Karen Gyldenstierne, widow after Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz of Boller and their heirs at R. had permission to seek to Stouby church, while the ealier owners of R. had seeked to Barrit church.  Their son Frederik Rosenkrantz is written of the farm in 1599, but he was exiled the same year because of his relation to Rigborg Brockenhuus and died in 1602. His brother Otte Christoffer Rosenkrantz took over R., but at his death in 1621 R. and Boller had, because of debt, to be sold to Ellen Marsvin, who inn 1630 had to give the farms to her daughter Kirstine Munk. She died in 1658 and her daughter Elisabeth Augusta sold R. in 1660 to stiftamtmand, gehejmeråd Henrik Rantzau (+ childless in 1674). The farm was inherited by his brother's son  kammerherre Henrik Rantzau (+ 1687), his brother grev Otto Rantzau (+ 1719) the son generalmajor grev  Frederik Rantzau (+ unmarried 1726), his brother viceroy in Norway, grev Christian Rantzau (+ 1771), who in 1756 established "Det grevelige Rantzauske Forlods af R".   

Later owners: The family Rantzau up till present.


Rosenvold, the main building is listed in class A.

Some extra details in history: 
The castle ruin is still seen in the forest northeast of Rosenvold. Staksevold was probably withdrawn and broken down by queen Margrethe I in her work of gathering Denmark and the Nordic countries in the second half of the 1300s.

In front of the coast banks on the low meadows towards Vejle fjord and a few hundred meters from the sea Karen Gyldenstierne built her dower house Rosenvold in 1585. Before this her husband Holger Rosenkrantz had established Rosenvold as a main farm ab. 1570. He had bought the areas of the earlier Staksevold, a "røverborg" (robbers' castle), which was a stone tower with a bank and moat and outside with wooden buildings and a stable.
At the death of Karen Gyldenstierne her two sons took over Rosenvold, first Frederik Rosenkrantz, who run into bad luck because of his relation to the queen's Lady in Waiting Rigborg Brockenhuus from Egeskov. As a punishment she was immured at Egeskpov, while Frederik contracted the wrath of the king and was exiled. His brother Christoffer took over the estate, but he got some economic problems and had in 1621 to sell Rosenvold to Ellen Marsvin of Holckenhavn , wjo was the big collector of estate at that time and the mother-in-law of Christian IV. In 1630 Ellen Marsvin was at the kings command ordered to give Rosenvold to her daughter Kirsten Munk, since she was banished from the court after having refused the king access to her chamber. Kirsten Munk's heirs had to sell Rosenvold in 1660 to Henrik Rantzau of Schönweide in Holstein and stiftamtmand in Århus. The Rantzau family is still the owners of Rosenvold and has been for almost 350 years. (source.: Rosenvold.dk/)  


Rosenvold Marina, photo:gb

Gravengård etc was by hr. Oluf Stigsen (Krognos) pawned in 1497 to bishop Niels Clausen in Århus, later it belonged to the son hr. Mourids Olufsen (Krognos)(+ 1550), with whose daugther it came to Holger Rosenkrantz of Boller in 1662. G was from Boller laid out to Gabriel Marselis at Havreballegård.

The medieval castle bank Gravengård was situated close north of Lille Gravengård about 500 m northwest of Stouby kirke.  A farm was earlier  situated at the castle bank. After a fire in 1926 the farm was outparcelled and the site was levelled. The castle bank lay in a pond which water surrounded it on three sides, upon the fourth side was probably a moat. In the 19th century were probably destroyed some banks. Upon the castle bank were buildings in monk bricks.

Rohden was in 1662 two farms belonging under Rosenvold. In 1758 grev Christian Friis (of Vadskærgård) of Frijsenborg deeded both farms to manager Hans Erik Saabye, later of Brantbjerg, and in 1771-72 justitsråd Jørgen Hvass de Lindenplam of Tirsbæk deeded the two farms to Christen Mikkelsen Kjær, who in 1789 only owned one farm, Neder Rohden. This farm his son Jens Kaj Kjær willed shortly before his death in 1826 to his daughter Christiane Kjær, in 1827 m. to Jørgen Hansen, later of Borchsminde.
Later owners: Jacob Lund Eggertsen, Jens Simonsen Buch, Nicolai Jensen Jelling, Johannes Brorson, Flemming Lerche, Folmer Lüttichau.

Niels Jensen of Ullerup is mentioned 1340-46.  

Jysk Nervesanatorium at Vejle fjord, built 1898-99. = Vejlefjord Sanatorium.

According to Pont Atlas Gammelby was originally called Stouby, but since a part of the town burnt down and was rebuilt about 1 km from there, the new town was called Stouby, while the rest was called Gammelby. Since the vicarage lies here, the parish was for a period called Gammelby parish.

forest at Fakkegrav, photo: gb
At the beach were some farms Falsterbo (1664 Falsterboe). Northeast of Hugholm were some houses called Himmerig. From dissapeared farms are Smedegård (1497 Smedegard) in Hyrup and Bjerregård (1683 Bierregaard, Berrgord). Furthermore the houses Knoseborg or Hulvejen (1664 Huolweyen or Knoseborrig), Sanderbækhus (1683 Sanderbech Hues) and Strandhuset (1688 Strandhuuset), de two last mentioned were fisherman's houses. Fakkegrav was earlier named Favrdal (1683 Fougerdal) and later Pakhuset




Listed prehistorics: At Rosenvold is Tehøj in which top are two cover stones, probably for a passage grave, and a somewhat disturbed dolmen chamber. Furthermore a large hill south of the church and two hills in Ullerup skov.
Demolished or destroyed: not less than 19 stone graves, of which two were long dolmens, one with 4 chambers; a dolmen chamber and two passage graves. In Pont. Atalse is mentioned at the vicarage a stone -surrounded hill with several chambers,which the parish priest let abolish.

From Rohden is known a small heap of shells from early Roman period.


Names from the Middle Ages and 1600s: Stouby (1399 Stoby, 1498 Stowby); Gammelby (1498 Gamelbi); Hyrup (1477 Hyrop, Hyrøp); Hostrup (1300s Horstorpmark, 1497 Hostrup); Belle (1459 Bælle); Fakkegrav (1664 Fastjgrau); Stoubyskov (1664 Stoubye Schouff); Hjerrild (1610 Herildtt); Hugholm (1683 Hugholm); Grund (1477 Grwnnæ); Rosenvold (1575 Rosenvold); Rohden (1474 Rode, 1475 Rodhe); Grundgård (1495 Grundegaardtt, Grunegaardt); Rønsholtskrog (1683 Rønsholt Sovhues); Gravengård (1462 Grawengart); Bobæk (1664 Boebech); Over Ullerup (1340 Vgelthorp, 1474 Wllerøp), Stoubylund (1511 Stobylundt); Årup Mølle (1458 Arrvp Mølle, Arwp Mølle) .     



Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.

photo 2011: grethe bachmann






Tuesday, June 04, 2013

Barrit church/ Barrit kirke and Barritskov, Bjerre herred, Vejle amt.



Barrit church, ab. 12 km east of Vejle.



Barrrit kirke
The church in Barrit origins probably from 1152-1160. It was originally white. The church went through several re-buildings but the present look is from a main restoration in 1879, where the old church was re-walled with red bricks from a demolished tilework in Breth. The placement of the church building is interesting. The area is easy to defend; the brook and the steep banks protect the church towards the north and partly to the east and the west. The church dike was easy to equip with palisades and the church was with its thick walls ( in some places up til 2 m) a safe residence for women and children.
 
Barrit church has a choir with a triangular finish, a nave and a tower to the west and a chapel to the north. The church, which was built in travertine, is marked by a re-bricked with red bricks in the end of the 1800s - so it looks quite like the neo-Romanesque creations of that period. The walls are divided in supporting pillars and have round arched friezes in the top. The inside of the church has no details, but is whitewashed. The choir section ,which in its present look is caused by a choir extension in the 1300s, has a triangular rib vault and a short point arched barrel vault, while the nave has four bays of cross vaults upon strongly protruding wall pillars ( the common East Jutland type from the second half of the 1400s). The tower is late Gothic in its kernel but it seems also re-bricked with its square spire between four glare-decorated pointed gables. The medieval wallwork is only visible in the chapel, but this was also changed during time, like in 1725. The church was restored in 1787 and 1879. A porch on the southside was removed in the big re-build and the entrance was placed in the tower room. Upon the choir arch and in other places are some fresco-decorations  from the restoration-period.

Barrit church, photo Google Earth.
Interior:
A neo-Romanesque communion table. An altarpiece, an oak frame with a painting by J.Thrane 1731, repaired in 1918. A chalice with a Renaissance knot and foot and cup from 1746. Upon the cup the coat of arms and initials for Tønne Reedtz and L.F.Levetzau. Similar oblate box with stamp for Knud Rasmussen Brandt. Horsens. Heavy late Gothic candelabres upon lion feet. A Romanesque granite font with a smooth cylindric basin upon  truncated foot. South German dish ab. 1575. A neo-Romanesque pulpit and crucifix. Bell from 1874.

In the chapel eight coffins with the bodies of the family Reedtz: Tønne Reedtz (+ 1699) and wife; Valdemar Reedtz (+ 1724) and wife; Tønne Reedtz (+ 1743) and wife; and G. Balthasar Samitz (+ 1732) and wife, née Reedtz. Furthermore two burial banners.




Barritskov, photo 2011  gb
Barritskov belonged in 1261 to hr Niels, who founded the Fransiscan kloster in Horsens, in 1314 and 1323 to hr Mogens Jensen, and then to his son Mogens Mogensen, and in 1356-1483 four generations of the fanmily Manderup, all named Niels Manderup and all knights. The last left B. to his daughter Anne Manderup. m. to Christen Holck, who still lived in 1502. Their son Manderup Holck is mentioned as the owner until 1537 ( in an exchange in 1513 he got his sister Sophie's part of B.) and the farm came then to the son Hans Holck (+ 1565) and to his son Manderup Holck, with whom this line of the family died out in 1588, whereafter the sister Kirsten Holck by marriage brought B. to rigsråd Steen Brahe of Knudstrup (+ 1620 ). Their daughter Birgitte Brahe brought it to rigsråd Frederik Reedtz of Tygestrup (+ 1659); whose son Tønne Reedtz (+ 1669) inherited it. His widow Elisabeth Sehested (+ 1705) deeded in 1700 B. to her son Valdemar Reedtz (+ 1724), who was followed by his son Tønne Reedtz (+ 1743), whose widow Lucie Emerentze Levetzau kept the farm until her death in 1774. It then came to her son-in-law statsminister Frederik Christian Rosenkrantz of Rosenholm (+ 1802)

Later owners:  Niels Rosenkrantz(stamhuset Rosenkrantz), Henrik Jørgen Scheel; Frederik (Fritz)Chr. Rosenkrantz Scheel, Henrik Jørgen Scheel,  Knud Henrik Otto Brockenhuus-Schack; J.K.B. Brockenhuus- Schack. 1913-1949, Knud Henrik Otto Brockenhuus-Schack; 1949-1967: Jens Knud Bille Brockenhuus-Schack; 1969-1984 Mogens Harttung; 1984-1985: Mary North married Harttung; From 1985 : Thomas Alexander North Hartung.


Barritskov photo 2011: gb
The old main building, which was broken down in 1914, made a picturesque three-winged plan which individual houses were built at various times in the 1500s. The castle yard lay upon the bank of a small, now dried out lake, upon a narrow square medieval castle bank. (...) Steen Brahe and fru Kirsten built a large living house in two storeys in 1597-98 to replace the old timbered wing to the east. (...) A lower short western wing was built in the 1500s or 1600s as a replacement for the older timbered wing, but it disappeared shortly after 1793. (...) When Fr. Chr. Rosenkrants inherited Barritskov 1774, this ceased being the residence of its owner,  and in the following century the building came into decay. (...) Althoug it showed that there was nothing wrong with the buildings, Barritskov was broken down in January 1914. This was   one of the most painful losses, which the Danish architecture suffered in the 1900s.(...) Knud Brockenhuus-Schack built a new main building, a simple formed two storesy red brick villa, the building is by a short middle building in connection to the lower sidewing to the north,  where the timber from the old timbered building has been used in a decorative way. The inscription tablet of Steen Brahe is inserted in the west gable. Some old panelwork and doors from the old catle yard are used in the dining room and parts of the painted ceiling from 1598 in a front hall.

The big garden was planned by landscape gardener E. Glæsel, the now very overgrown ruins of the old main building are kept from decorative reasons. Tønne Reedtz had west of the old main building established a large French garden, which remains are still seen.

Strandmøllen in Barritskov was in 1356 by Peter Ulfsen Mule sold to Niels Manderup junior.

Staksrode skov photo 2011: gb
In Staksrode Vesterskov, about 300 m from the beach, lies the medieval castle bank Staksevold. It is an almost rectangular middle bank ( 26x34 m) at the foot, surrounded by a now waterfilled moat, which broadth varies from 10 til 19 m. Around the moat is a bank, which to the west reaches a height of ab. 2 m and a broadth at the top of 8 m, while to the east it is only 1 m high and 2,5 m broad. To the northeast the bank is interrupted for letting water in. In the outer foot of the western bank lies a plateau (ab. 50 x 10 m), protected by a dry moat in front.

The National Museum has examined and excavated the castle bank. The ground walls of the original stone house were restored etc..Some planks from a wooden bridge were found and foundation stones from a timnbered building,  coins from the end of the 13th century and from the 14th century, some weapons etc.    

In the parish (Barrit) was a village, named Have (1462 Hawe), which is menrioned several times ab. 1500. Also Stavsøre (1408 Staffør, 1457 Stafsøræ) seems to be the name of a village; the main farm here was deeded by Johan Kalf in 1408 to the Roskilde bishop, who in 1457 exchanged it to hr Johan Bjørnsen (Bjørn). The name is probably found again in Stagsevold (originally Stavsørevold), a name of a castle bank in Staksrode Vesterskov, which supposedly indicates the old situation of Rosenvold(manor) in Stouby parish.

From disappeared farms is mentioned Gammelgård (1443 Gammellgaard) in Barritslund, Tovskov (1502 Tofskoff) and Breth Torp (1408 Brendtorp ,1473 Bredsthorp),  which in 1664 was divided in two farms.

In the edge of the beach south of Barritskov was once a castle bank, which was traceable until a few years ago (since 1964). The sea has wiped away the last rests. The plan is described as a circular castle bank (12 m diameter) and a front castle, both surrounded by moats. A corner of a monk brick building was visible.

Listed prehistorics: 7 stone graves, of which 5 are at Barritskov, and three of these lie in a group upon the field east of the farm, one contains a polygonal dolmen chamber without cover stone, another contains a disturbed passage grave, in Barrit Tykke lies a long dolmen with a disturbed chamber. In Staksrode Skov lie two dolmens with removed chambers. Finally a small hill in Barrit Tykke.

Demolished or destroyed: 18 stone graves and 13 hills, one of the stone graves was known to be a passage grave. All memorials are or were in the southern half of the parish.

An urn grave site from early Roman period is known north of Barrithule, an Iron Age settlement from Korsbækhoved. 


Names from the Middle Ages and 1600s: Over Barrit (1333 Barwith, 1462 Baræth); Barrithule (1356 Barwythole); Barritskov by (1664 Baarit schouffs bye); Breth (1408 Brent, 1458 Breedh, Bredh); Staksrode (1238 Barrit Rud, 1408 Ruthe, 1475 Baruid (t));  Breth Surmose (1426 Smemosze, 1509 Suermoessze); Lavrsgård (1683 Lausgaardt); Gramtange (1546 Gramtange); Barritlund (1443 Baruedlund); Barritskov (1261 Barritzskov, 1323 Barwiithscogh); Rand (1664 Rande); Enemærkegård (1664 Eenemerchet); Korsbækhoved (1683 Korsbech Hofuit)


Source Trap Danmark, Vejle amt, 1964.


photo Barrit church: Google Earth 
photo Barritskov and Staksrode skov 2011: grethe bachmann 






Monday, June 03, 2013

Øster Snede church/ Øster Snede kirke, Nørvang herred, Vejle amt.


Øster Snede church, ab. 10 km northeast of Vejle.(Google Earth) 




Øster Snede kirke
The large church in Øster Snede has a Romanesque choir and nave with late Gothic additions, a cross arm to the south, a tower to the west and a porch to the south. The Romanesaue building is in granite ashlars upon a bevelled plinth. Some conditions indicate that the choir from the beginning had an apse, but it is not quite certain. Both original doors are kept, the round arched south door is in use, the north door with a round arch decoration is bricked-up. Some of the Romanesque windows (round arched( are traceabke like on the north side of the choir. The Romanesque walls are outside mostly re-bricked. Their upper sections and the western gable of the choir are re-bricked with small bricks and now whitewashed. The round choir arch stands inside with profiled kragsten. The choir arch is flanked by round arched side altar niches. In the Gothic period, probably ab. 1375-1400, the choir got a cross vault with profiled ribs, and about a century later four cross vaults were built in the nave (in East Jutland type) upon protruding wall pillars. At this occassion the west gable was re-bricked with monk bricks and had a decoration of five point arched high glares, which are partly kept behind the tower.

The following rebuild seems to be the building of the cross arm at the south side of the nave. It is built in monk bricks and re-used ashlars, which probably origin from a demolished church, since there in the ashlar material is a window monolite, which does not respond to the Romanesque windows of the church. The room, which opens towards the nave in a pointed arcade, has a star vault, and in the west wall is a point arched frieze in the height of a man. The upper section is like choir and nave rebuilt with small bricks.  The tower, which cross vaulted bottom room opens towards the nave in a round arch in the full broadth of the tower room, was built in the Reformation period. To the north side of this is a free staircase up to a round arched upper door. The smooth gables with visible foot timber turn west- east. The south side is at the top rebuilt with small bricks. The porch, which is also from the Reformation period, has above the flat round arched door a savskifte (bevelled bricks) and two circular glares, and it is flanked by small peepholes. The building was restored in 1935.

Øster Snede church


Interior: A strange late Gothic frescoe of a warrior with a huge mane, maybe Samson or Holger Danske - was brought to light in 1926 and restored in 1935. Upon the choir arch an inauguration cross. The communion table is covered in a panelwork from ab. 1590 with portalfields. The altarpiece is a late Gothic triptychon with the original apostle figures in fhe wings. It was re-shaped in the Renaissance, probably 1606, but was restored in 1935 and got a new crucifixion group in the mid field, made by S. Forchhammer. The painted foot piece from the Renaissance-change with a painting hangs in the church and upon the backside of the piece is places an unusually bad altar painting from 1846 by painter Lindegaard, Horsens. The altar chalice ab. 1650, given by Jørgen Juul and Ellen Arenfeldt. A bread box, given by Frederikke Hedwig Dorothea v. Buchwaldt. Late Gothic candelabres upon sitting lions. A good late Gothic choir arch crucifix from the middle of the 1400s. A Romanesque granite font with double lions. A dish from 1648 with the same coat of arms as upon the pulpit, which is a simple Renaissance work with Tuscany corner columns, dated 1641, and with the paternal and maternal coat of arms of Jørgen Juul and Ellen Arenfeldt. A contemporary sounding board. A klingpung (collection purse on a stick) from the end of the 1700s. In the cross arm an ore chandelier given by parish priest Matthias Selmer (+ 1738). A bell from the beginning of 1800s, cast by Daniel Reimer, Randers with reliefs of Oldenburg kings.

In a bricked chamber in front of the choir arch was (in an excavation for a heating system) found a lead plate from the coffin of Pernille Mouridsdatter. In the porch a worn out gravestone from the 1700s.
In the church dike to the south is a large portal in ashlars and monk bricks with a round arched driving gateway and a flat curved gate, probably late Gothic.

Agersbøl
 - was originally a village, where rigshofmester hr. Mogens Gøye got 1 farm with his first wife Mette Albrechtsdatter Bydelsbak (+ 1513), who had got it after her mother Pernille Axelsdatter Brock. 4 farms at the same place was deeded by Stefan v. Bülow's widow Margrethe in 1528 to Mogens Gøye, whose daughter's daughter Margrethe Justdatter Høeg (Banner), widow after Chr. Quitzow, in 1595 is written of A., which in 1630 belonged to her brother's son Just Høeg (Banner) of Bjørnholm. From him it came in 1638 to Jørgen Juul of Låge, who in 1666 was divorced from his wife Ellen Hansdatter Arenfeldt (+ 1676). In an agreement she got A., but after her death the farm had to be shared by the heirs of both parts.Her heirs deeded in 1676 their part to Laurids Brorson of Dybvad, who later outbought Jørgen Juul's heirs. In 1681 A. was deeded to oberstløjtnant Kai de la Marc (+ 1713), whose son oberstløjtnant Hieronymus de la Marc (+ 1727) became the owner. In an auction after him in 1728 it was bought by Jørgen Jørgensen's widow Pernille (+ 1750), whose son Mourids Jørgensen owned it until his death 1753.

Later owners: Poul Marcussen of Ørumgård, the family Marcussen until ab. 1801, Erik Chr. Grave Hoppe of Lillerup; John Schmidt of Gyllingnæs; Johannes Peter Ingwersen of Viufgård; family Ingwersen; H.Hastrup; M.F.C.Zahn, Kolding; Juan A. Rothaus; Konsortium; Raun and Albertsen; C.I.Petersen; Jysk Landhypothekforening; Andreas Jensen; A. Svendsen and J. Marcussen; some out parcelling;  main parcel to direktør Malte Vestergaard. 1931- 1970: William Jensen. From 1970 : Knud Bøgh Bisgaard.



The earlier main building had acc. to Pont Atlas a marvellous tower and a high spire, and there was a church by the manor , but the building was wall and timber, and it was probably demolished in 1739 or 1746 by fru Pernille Jørgensen, who built a new three-winged timbered main buiilding, which stood until 1845. The same year Martin Ingwersen built the present main building, a bricked whitewashed building with a long low one storey main wing, at each end is a short house across in two storeys with stepped gables. In 1883 was built in the middle a square sided tower and a high pointed slated roof.

Agersbøl, photo wikipedia.

Claus Jensen (Dyre) lived in 1459 in Sole; Svend Torbernsen (Udsen) wrote himself in 1468 of Soleskovgård. 


Laurids Mund is in 1652 written of Krollerupgård.


Madevig (1638 Mayvig) was in 1660 the name of some demolished houses, which land was laid under Agersbøl.



In a cleaning up of the pavement in the yard of Øster Snede vicarage were in 1905 found various silver ware and a stoneware jar with 35 little coins, the earliest from 1645.

There are no listed prehistorics in the parish, but there were 12 hills, among those the large Brohøj at Agersbøl, which had a mill, and a large hill at Øster Snede, where according to the legend king Sniø is buried. Two hills at Agersbøl contained graves from early Roman Iron Age; one contained a buckle with a silver mask.

From Rosenkær at Båstrup origin a belt plate, 2 necklaces and a gold pin,  and from Soleskov two massive bronze rings - everything from late Bronze Age.

Names from the Middle Ages and 1600s:  Øster Snede (ab. 1330 Sneeth, 1688 Øster Snee); Kragelund (1409 Kragelund); Gammelsole (1459 Solæ, 1495 Sole); Krollerup (1499 Krollerop; 1500 Krollerup); Bøgballe (1460 Bøgbaly); Båstrup (1409, 1469 Bostrop); Soleskov (1468 Soliskowgardh); Agersbøl (1528 Agitzbølle); Gøgemølle (1683 Giøgemølle).

Source: Trap Danmark, Vejle amt 1964   


photo: Google Earth and Wikipedia.