Friday, August 24, 2012

Bregentved Castle, Zealand

and Haslev church

Bregentved is the center in a hilly Zealand manor landscape, surrounded by long, old avenues and wide fields. The mighty three-winged, whitewashed main building is in Neo Rococo style, built ab. 1890. It is one of the largest estates in Denmark. 

The big park was originally laid out as a Baroque garden in the middle of the 1700s. In the French inspired style are long straight avenues with fontains, ponds, memorials etc., but the hilly terrain is also perfect for an English landscape garden, and the regularity of the Baroque is interrupted by surprising views and garden houses.

Bregentved is synonymous with the great Moltke family. but the estate is known already from the 1300s, where it belonged to the Grubbe-family:
Bregentved was a manor already from 1382, when the væbner Olauus Grwbbæ (Grubbe) in Skovklosters dødebog (deathbook) is mentioned of B. His widow Margrethe married hr. Erik Bydelsbak (+ latest 1414), who still in 1410 wrote himself of B.,  and after him it went to the widow Bodil and then to the son, rigsråd hr. Laurids Eriksen Bydelsbak (+ earliest 1433), whose heirs sold it to hr. Niels Pedersen Gyldenstierne of Ågård (+ 1456). After him followed his son rigsråd hr. Mourids Nielsen Gyldenstierne of Ågård etc. (+ ab. 1504), whose daughter Anne Mouridsdatter (+ 1545) in her first marriage brought B. to rigsråd hr. Oluf Stigsen Krognos of Krapperup and Bollerup (+ 1506) and in her second marriage to rigsråd hr. Predbjørn Podebusk of Kørup, Vosborg, Bidstrup etc. (+ 1541), earlier a vasal at Skjoldenæs. In the first time after fru Anne's death the owner-conditions are unclear. For a period B. was owned by her daughter's son Bent Bille (+ 1555), but also her son hr. Mourids Olufsen Krognos of Krapperup and Bollerup, vasal at Skjoldenæs ( + 1550), is mentioned as the owner of B. and in the exchange after him his son, later rigsråd and manager of Herlufsholm school Oluf Mouridsen Krognos (+ 1573) took over B.

He died the last male of his family, and B. was inherited by his mother's brother Christoffer Gøye of Avnsbjerg, Clausholm, Gunderslevholm, and Bollerup, (+ 1584), who in 1581 sold it to rigsråd Steen Brahe of Tersløse, Næsbyholm and Knudstrup (+ 1620). From his son Erik Brahe of Knudstrup (+ 1631) it went in 1630 to his brother-in-law Falk Gøye of Skærsø (+ 1643), who sold it already the same year to the vasal at Frederiksborg and Kronborg Frederik Urne of Alslev (+ 1658). His widow Karen Hansdatter Arenfeldt (+ 1673) had in 1665-68 established the main farm Arenfeldtsborg from two villages Pederstrup and Holte. Because of this she was heavily in debt and had in 1668 to sell B. to her son-in-law, viceroy in Norway Ove Juul of Villestrup (+ 1686), who in 1682 sold it to his son-in-law, later viceroy in Norway Frederik Gabel of Bavelse and Giesegård (+ 1708), who reunited Arenfeldtsborg with B. When he died heavily in debt B. was in 1709 put on auction but bought by his son Christian Carl Gabel (+ 1748) of Giesegård.

Later owners: 1718 Frederik IV,  sold 1731 to Poul de Løvenørn, known from battle at Poltava. His son Frederik de Løvenørn, (+ 1779), sold 1779 to Chr. VI., owner from 1746 Adam Gottlob Moltke (+ 1792), and  Bregentved  owned by the Moltke family since.

Haslev church.
Ringsted herred, Sorø amt.
The church is heavily marked by an extension 1914-16. It has a complicated building history, since it contains rests of a small Romanesque church, nave and choir and apse. Rests of an original window in the choir are now at the National Museum. The building was already in the 1200s extended to the east. At the same time the nave was extended to the west; later, probably in the 1300s was choir and nave extended in the width, which was unusual, the whole southwall was removed and built in bricks 2-2 1/2 m to the south and the east gable of the choir war renewed. The building got a cross vault at the same time. The roof gable of the choir is probably from the middle of the 1400s. Shortly before the reformation the church got four extensions, all in bricks: sacristy and chapel to the north, porch to the south and a western tower with a stair house on the south side. In the big extension 1914-16 a new nave and choir were built across the old church, which is now cross arms, since the old nave's north wall and the eastern section of the chapel was removed and new windows were inserted all over. The new choir is at the south. During a restoration were found tiles from the 1300s; they are now at the National Museum - and foundations from the southwalls and apse from the old church were found also.

The altarpiece is an oil painting, a copy of an Eckersberg painting from 1855 in a contemporary neo Gothic frame. The altar silver is from 1716, and a couple of heavy altar candelabres from ab. 1650. Chasuble in silk from ab. 1750. Granite font from 1936, made after sketch by architect Lønborg-Jensen. The former sandstone font is now in the Timoteus church in Copenhagen. A baptismal dish in brass ab. 1700. A crucifix from 1941. From an old choir arch crucifix are only kept the legs of the figure. The pulpit is a Renaissance work from 1579 from the same workshop as the pulpit in Udby (Præstø amt) with the coat of arms of Oluf Krognos and Anna Hardenberg. The sounding board is from ab. 1640-50 with the coat of arms of Fr. Urne and Karen Arenfeldt and the coat of arms of Moltke and Knuth added in 1864. Some gables are kept from the old pews from ab. 1560 and some gables and doors, contemporary to the pulpit, besides parts of a manor stool from 1562 with the coat of arms of Krognos, Juel and Gøye and a top piece with the same coat of arms as the pulpit. The parish clerk stool has Brusk Baroque field with intarsia-like foliage. Bells: 1) from 1615, Hartwig Quellichmeyer; 2) from ab. 1350-75 by Olaf Henriksen.  Gravestones from the 1500s and 1600s. At the National Museum are some coffin mounts from ab. 1600-50 with the coat of arms of the Brahe-family. In 1914 was foound a grave from ab. 1200.  

From the parish: 
In Troelstrup was a lesser main farm, which according to the Roskildebishops jordebog ab. 1370 together with other farms in the village belonged to the bishop. In 1430 this estate was endowed to Laurids Bydelsbak of Bregentved. At the reformation it came to the Crown, which gave Claus Daa of Ravnstrup a life's letter on T., but he exchanged it in 1567 with some estate in Herlufmagle. The same year Peder Oxe of Gisselfeld became the owner by exchange. He laid it under G., but at his death Troelstrupgård was laid out as inheritance for Johanne Oxe. In 1609 it was owned by her relative Helvig Marsvin. In 1630 it was sold to Frands Lykke of Gisselfeld by Erik Normann of Selsø - and  abandoned by Frands Lykke. 

In Haslev was in the Middle Ages a lesser main farm. In 1328 is mentioned Magnus Toddæ of H., who still lived in 1337. Ab. 1370 it seems that the farm was a vasalry of Roskilde bishopric.  In 1398 is mentioned væbner Petrus Dænæ de Haslæ.

Northwest of Bregentved castle, in the socalled Ondemose (Unnemose) lies the castle bank Davrebanken, which is pointed out as the original place of the main farm. It is an almost circular bank (ab. 50 m diameter),which rises 2 meter above the surrounding terrain. The bank was originally surrounded by water and the access was probably from east, where there was only 20 meter's distance to land. It is said that monk bricks were found earlier in the northern side of the bank.

Listed prehistorics: west of Haslev the large dolmen chamber Enghøj. South of Bregentved lies the large hill Koldinghushøj or Troldhøj; in Bregentved deer park 22 wellkept hills( listed from earlier times).  (one is demolished).

Names from the Middle Ages:
Troelstrup (ab. 1370 Thruwelstorp); Bregentved (1410 Brægnethwet).


Source: Trap Danmark, Sorø amt, 1954; Niels Peter Stilling, Danmarks Slotte og Herregårde, 1997.

photo June 2012: grethe bachmann


Friday, August 10, 2012

Gjøl church / Gjøl kirke, Hvetbo herred, Hjørring amt.

Gjøl Church ab 14 km west of Ålborg
Gjøl sogn, Hvetbo herred, Hjørring amt.

Mester Goti's relief of two lions

God's lamb.

Gjøl Church was placed upon an island in Limfjorden until the 1800s, where dikes connected it to the land. The church distinguishes itself by its rich picture ashlars made by the famous stone mason Mester Goti. In a stone to the right of the entrance door Mester Goti has carved his name and the names Ekin, Bondo, Osmund, Keitel, which might be the building masters. Upon the cover stone of the entrance portal are two reliefs; the snake in the tree where Eva is reaching the apple to Adam, the other probably a selfportrait of Mester Goti, a sitting stone mason with a heavy claw hammer, an ashlar in front and with the brickwork of the church behind him. In the frame of the door are biblical reliefs. In a stone to the right of the door two lions with a cross. This image is repeated upon the cover stone of the walled-in women's door on the nortside of the church. Finally an ashlar with a relief of God's lamb.

The church was built ab. 1125-1175. The Romanesque part is an extremely long nave, built in two stages, and the choir. Both nave and choir are in granite ashlars, but all the walls are later re-walled. The church was extended to the west in the 1200s and in the late Gothic period were added a tower and a sacristy in bricks. The vaulted tower room has a pointed arch to the nave, but is parted from this by a wooden wall. The church bell hangs in a point-arched glamhul(opening) upon the western wall.The church had a thorough restoration in 1942. In the 1530s the choir vaults were decorated with frescoes, restored in 1907 by Eigil Rothe. The kragsten on ther southern section of the choir arch are carved with rich ornaments, probably made by Mester Goti.

A granite communion table with a Renaissance panel from ab. 1600. In the table was a reliquary whisch is now at the National Museum. A richly carved triptychon from ab. 1520, which work seems to be influenced or maybe made by Hans Brüggeman, whose main work is the Bordesholmalter i Slesvig Domkirke . The altar piece was restored in the 1700s and in 1936. A chalice from 1635. A strange four-leaved Romanesque granite font possibly made by Mester Goti. A pulpit with a sounding board in Renaissance from ab. 1600 with paintings of the Evangelists in the fields. Pews from 1942. A church ship from 1767. A church bell from 1830s cast by H. Gamst. Epitaphs, portrait grave stones memorial tablets from the 1600s. During the restoration in 1942 the floor was lowered to its original niveau and some magnificent grave frames in oak with inscriptions were brought to light. They are now placed in the porch and the tower room. Upon the church yard , surrounded by large trees, are many pretty original grave stones, among others a touching grave for two drowned little boys. The fate of these two boys plays a central role in Hans Kirk's master work Fiskerne.

At Limfjorden

Navne i middelalder og 1600t.:
Gjøl/Gøl ( * 1200s Giol, Gyol, 1500 Gøelss Kirke); Torp( 1459 Torpp); Bjergegårde( 1688 Ved Biergir); Hammergårde (1610 Hammergaard); Birkumgård (* 1465 Byrckomgaardtt).

Birkumgård tilhørte i senmiddelalderen (således allerede 1465) Børglum kloster og kom ved reformationen 1536 med dette klosters gods under kronen. 1543 fik toldreren på Skagen Niels pedersen livsbrev på b., dog mod afgift ti klostret.1669 skødede kongen gården blandt andet gods til oberst joachim v. Debbern, som allrede næste år overdrog den til sin ægteføælle fru gese som erstatning for hans gæld, som hun havde overtaget. .

belonged in the late Middle Ages (already in 1465) to Børglum kloster and came at the reformation in 1536 with the estate of this kloster to the Crown. In 1543 the tolder (customs officer) at Skagen Niels Pedersen got livsbrev (stay for life) at Birkumgård. In 1669 the king conveyed B. with other estate to oberst (colonel) Jochim v. Debbern. Various owners up til present.

At the island was mentioned earliest 1610 the farm Haffuen, earliest 1662 the farms Sualderbachen, Kiercheberig and Hougård, in 1669 the farm Løckegård, in 1688 the farms Wed Dammen, Aggerled, Paa Bachen and Weszelspring.

There are no prehistorics at the"island" and no one known, but there were some Stone Age settlements. Along the coast were found Ertebølle pieces in the beach line and there have been found late Stone Age's settlements ( ceramics, dolktid ) (2400-1700 bc) in several places, i.e. at Bjerget and south of Birkumgård.

Source: Trap Danmark, Hjørring amt, 1960; Niels Peter Stilling, Danmarks kirker, 2000.

photo April 2004: grethe bachmann

Mårslet church / Mårslet kirke, Ning herred, Aarhus amt.

Mårslet Church, ab. 9 km south of Aarhus
Mårslet sogn, Ning herred, Aarhus amt.

The eastern part of Maarslet parish has a very hilly terrain with hills above 100 m and 114 m as the highest point, but also deep valleys, where Giberå-river runs through and out to Moesgård Strand. Several of the hillsides are forested,, but the largest forest is the very visited Moesgård skov with the idyllic Skovmølle. The very visited popular beach at Moesgård is a part of Århus.

The outflow of Giberå at Moesgård Strand.

Mårslet church lies in the middle of the village, which has grown rather big during the last decades and now is almost a suburb of the second-largest town in Denmark, Århus. The church has a Romanesque choir and nave with a late Gothic tower to the west and a porch to the south. The Romanesque section is in granite ashlars. The south door with ornaments is in use, while the north door is bricked-up as an inside niche. Some original windows have been changed, others are bricked-up. On the north side of choir and nave are traces of windows; one window on the north side of the nave has been re-opened. In the late Gothic period was built cross vaults, in the choir two bays, and in the nave three plus a very narrow one. The pointed tower arch is extended. The tower was built in the late Gothic period in monk bricks. The bottom room has a beamed ceiling, but from the beginning it had two cross vaults. In the south side is a bricked-up flat curved door, where the niche is used as a tool-room. The bell-storey-work has small double openings in large frames. The tower was partly face walled in 1779 and has a pyramid spire. The porch is also late Gothic in monk bricks. The roof has flat roof plates (a beaver-tail-roof).

The beaver-tail-roof.

The altar piece upon the ashlar-walled communion table is a painting from 1888 given by baron C. Gyldenkrone. The earlier altar piece from 1682 with the coat of arms of Wilhelm baron Gyldenkrone and Regitze Sophie Vind is today in "Den Gamle By" in Århus. Heavy baluster-shaped candelabres ab. 1625. Romanesque granite font with double lions and male heads, probably made by the same stone mason as the font in Framlev. A Netherland bowl from ab. 1625. The pulpit is a pretty joinery in Renaissance from 1603, partly with the original colours and naive evangelist-paintings. Contemporary sounding board. Bell from 1594 cast by Matthias Benninck.

Mårslet church yard.

An epitaph from 1641 for Peder Nielsen, bishop Thestrup's great-grandfather and wife Ingeborg Pedersdatter Fogt, was placed by the son, Rasmus Pedersen Thestrup from Århus. The epitaph has been restored in 2009. A black and golden stone tablet for parish priest Madts Bergenhammer (+ 1727) and wife Kirsten Lipper, (+ 1727). A wooden tablet with funny angel-figures as a remembrance of setting up a chandelier in 1721 in connection to the wedding of a priest's daughter. In the east wall of the porch a grave stone , probably Romanesque, at the church yard another stone with three crosses and the name HALDA in majuskels. In the very high dike, which in some places is 2,5 m high, is a fine portal to th west.

In 1486 is mentioned the væbner Orm in Skomstrup. Later S. belonged to Anders Ebbesen (Galt)(+ 1529) and his brother rigsråd Peder Ebbesen (Galt)(+ 1548), then Jost Andersen (Ulfeld) of Østergård and Moesgård (+ 1548), whose daughter's son Niels Friis (of Vadskærgård) (+ 1651) in 1625 wrote himself of the farm . His son Mogens Friis made S. into a large estate and sold in 1662 S. together with Moesgård and 2 mills, 125 farms and bol and 32 houses to Gabriel Marselis (+ 1667) whose son Wilhelm Marselis 18/9 1673 raised S. into a barony in the name Vilhelmsborg, at the same time he was enobled an got the name Gyldenkrone. After his death 1683 the widow Regitze Sophie Vind (2. married to baron Jens Juel) owned the barony, which at her death was inherited by her son Christian Gyldenkrone (+ 1746). The Gyldenkrone family owned it until 1921. Sold 1950 to Århus Kommune. The present main building is listed in class B was built in 1842-44 by baron O.C.L.E.Gyldenkrone. Today Vilhelmsborg is Denmark's center for horse-racing.

Moesgård main building

Moesgård sems to have been established as a main farm by Jost Andersen (Ulfeld) of Skomstrup and Østergård(+ 1563), his widow Anne Kaas (Sparre-K.) lived still 1583, and from 1614 the daughter Helvig Ulfeld of M. is written of M; she died unmarried 1638, and the farm came to her sister's son Johan Brockenhuus of Lerbæk (+ 1648), whose widow Helvig Bille sold M., which came to another of Helvig Ulfeld's sister's sons, Niels Friis (of Vadskærgård) and of Favrskov and Skomstrup (+ 1651) whose son Mogens Friis in 1662 sold M. and Skomstrup to Gabriel Marselis. M. which burnt down during the war with Sweden came after this to Skomstrup (Vilhelmsborg). Owners the family Gyldenkrone until the late 1800s. In 1960 sold to Århus amt . the main building listed in class A. Today Forhistorisk Museum Moesgård.

Photos from the area:

Moesgård Skov

Skovmøllen , a cosy restaurant in Moesgård skov

The working water mill and an Iron Age house

Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s.:
Mårslet (* 1360 Mordslet, 1433 Morslet); Testrup (1465 Tisstrop); Hørret (* 1473 Hørit); Langballe (1544 Langballo); Obstrup (1580 Obestrup); Moesgård (1463 Mossgard); Skovmøllen (1610 Threskoumølle, 1664 Schouff Mølle).

Listed prehistorics: At Moesgård a very damaged long dolmen and a small hill : at Vilhelmsborg a hill.
Demolished or destroyed: 5 dolmens and other stone graves , a stone cist and 30 hills. Some Iron Age graves were found, at Testrup tilework was found a clay vessel with 8 Roman silver coins.

Source: Trap Danmark, Århus amt, 1963.

photo Mårslet kirke 2002; Moesgård & others: 2007: grethe bachmann

Vindblæs church / Vindblæs kirke, Slet herred, Aalborg amt.

Vindblæs Church

Vindblæs Church has a Romanesque choir and nave, built in granite ashlars, except raw boulder in the eastern gable of the nave. The building is very re-walled, and in the Middle Ages the western gable of the nave was re-walled in yellow and red monkbricks . The same material mixed with ashlars were used for the late Gothic tower and stair house, which ends through a flat-curved door upon the loft of the nave. The small low-lofted tower room, connected to the nave by a door, is now a tool-room. Te east window of the choir is original and the straight-edged south door of the nave which is still in use. A Romanesque window cover stone with a lion is placed in the western wall of the tower, upon the church yard is a monolit window cover stone, a granite base (Kapitæl) and a prehistoric grindstone. The upper section of porch and tower are white-washed, the rest of the church is blank wall.

There is no old communion table under the new pine-panel. The altar piece is a painting from 1895. A sandstone baptismal font from 1884. The old granite font is mentioned in former sources as very simple. Pulpit from 1626, straight-edged with arcades and paintings in the fields, restored in 1937. A new gallery with re-painted paintings from ab. 1720. A church bell from 1640.

Himmerland, Vestas windmills

Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s:
Vindblæs (* 1231 Windblæsæ, 1401 Windblæsth); Bjørumslet (1482 Byornumslethæ); Øster Strett ( 1611 Østerstrett); Årupgård ( * 1466 Aarderup, Arupgard).

Årupgård and Årup with a farm in "Waszdmarck" in Vindblæs gave Jep Kat latest in 1453 to Skt. Hans kloster in Viborg, but in 1473 could the væbner Nis Mikkelsen convey the same estate to Viborg bishopric; he re-bought the estate in 1478 in exchange with Viskum by and lived still in Årup in 1484. Since (1536) the estate came to the crown, which in 1579 exchanged it to rigsråd Henrik Gyldenstierne of Ågård (+ 1592): Various owners.

Valdemar II Sejr owned land in Vindblæs worth 2 mark guld (ab. 8 tdr. hartkorn) according to Valdemar jordebog. Tingstedet ( The Thing) was possibly held in the parish in the Middle Ages.

In Vindblæs lived the wellknown "kloge kone" (wise woman/healer) Maren Kristine Christensdatter Haaning (+ 1853), whose daughter Maren Jensdatter Haaning (+ 1895) and since her daughter Karen Marie Rasmussen, named Haaning (+ 1914) and still a family member continued the occupation.

Listed prehistorics: A 100 m long dolmen at Årupgård; its 3 chambers are removed. 17 hills, of which Tinghøj northwest of the church and Vejrhøj at Engelstrup are rather large. Besides is a listed area with prehistoric fields east of the parish and a Roman Iron Age stone grave, where were found 3 clay pots.
Demolished or destroyed: 2 long dolmens and one round dolmen, all at Årupgård, and 19 hills.

Source: Trap Danmark, Aalborg amt, 1961.

photo Vindblæs kirke 2. May 2009: grethe bachmann

Thursday, August 09, 2012



The blog will gradually be updated.
The post title of the church will be written in both English and Danish.
This will make it easier to do a search.

Example of a whole post title:

Vinkel church/ Vinkel kirke, Middelsom herred, Viborg amt. 

This will  also give you the possibility to find a group of a special  herred or amt.

The labels will also be gradually updated.

Tørring church / Tørring kirke, Skodborg herred, Ringkøbing amt.

Tørring Church ab. 6 km west of Lemvig
Tørring sogn, Skodborg herred, Ringkøbing amt.

The high-placed church in Tørring has a Romanesque choir and nave with a late Gothic tower to the west. The Romanesque building is built in granite ashlar with double plinth. Both doors are bricked-up, besides are two bricked-up windows, one in the south wall of the nave, another in the choir to the north. In the south wall of the choir is a low-placed "spedalskhedsvindue"(leprosy-window) formed by two monolit cover stones. In the south wall of the nave are besides several ashlars with stone mason fields a stone with a pretty engraved cross. The original choir arch has profiled kragbånd. The nave has a beamed ceiling, and in the choir was built a cross vault in the late Gothic period. The late Gothic tower is built in monk bricks, re-used ashlars and granite boulders; it has a cross vaulted bottom room, which is furnished as a porch, since the pointed tower arch is out-walled with a door. A very low flat-curved door in the northeast corner of the room leads to the stair tower. The walls of the tower are mostly face walled, but the north gable still stands with six cut højblændinger(blænding = drawn-back area) and visible foot timber. At the reformation was in the north side of the nave inserted large flat-curved windows while the south side are from the late 1800s, when the gable top of the choir was re-walled in small bricks.

The communion table is covered in a panel from the middle of the 1600s with portal fields and baluster profiled pilasters. The altar piece is a simple Renaissance triptychon from 1601, given by Ove Lykke. It has paintings from 1673 in the wings. In the large field is a simple painting from ab. 1850 and in the top field a painting from 1814. A Baroque chalice from ab.1675, a Viborg-work by Peder Rasmussen. Heavy Baroque candelabres ab. 1650. A Romanesque granite font in West Jutland sepal-type. A small south German bowl ab. 1550-75 . A pulpit in Renaissance, ab. 1625, with volut pillars and portal fields, where in 1922 were painted copies of the Evangelispictures from the pulpit in Bøvling Church. Bell from 1506 with a long minuskelinscription in Latin, which mentions John the Baptist who is the saint of the church. It was probably cast by Peter Hansen. In the foot wall of the tower are two Romanesque granite grave stones and in the tower room two worn-out 1700s grave stones.

Vadskærgård belonged in the 1300s to Christiern Nielsen, who sold it to Jep Olsen Lunge. Later it belonged to Niels Friis, who is mentioned 1522, his son Godske Friis 1540-84 and his son Jørgen F. inherited the farm and bought likewise more estate for it, before he died unmarried 1661. It then went to his brothers' sons Otte Friis of Astrup and Mogens Friis, who later founded Frijsenborg and in 1662 bought Otte's halfpart of V. and some estate. In 1663 he exchanged the farm to rigsadmiral Ove Gjedde's heirs, of whom the son amtmand Knud Giedde (later of Hastrup, + 1707) became the sole owner. Later owners: Lange, Gjerum Holm, Levetzau, Dahl, Vadum, Gleerup, Andrup, Nyboe, Agger. Outparcelled by Jordlovsudvalget in the 1950s. Main parcel was owned by A. Lindemann and F. Lind Pedersen. The main building was built in 1860 by J.C. Agger.

In 1497 Søren Stygge of Søgård at Holmsland gave his rights in his farm "Sø" in Tørring sogn (parish) to Gudum kloster. In 1499 it was owned by Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz of Boller. in1770 it was under Vadskærgård.

The main farm Sø was situated at the eastern section of Hornsø, where is seen an oblong rise just at the foot of the slope. When building a border dike here were found granite boulders and monk bricks, and at the edge of the lake found oak posts. The visible traces on the spot does not tell anything about the disappeared plan's character. A little east of this was a water-mill.

Upon a field at Halgård was according to Resens Atlas found a sacred well, Hr. Rafns Kild.

In a hill, named "Trollehøy" at Gjellerø (now Gjeller Odde) was said to be found in ab. 1600 a large bunch of "lædermønter" (leather coins) and gold coins.

From disappeared farms in the parish is Stjerneborg (1581 Sternborg); Brandsgård (1642 Brandtzgaard), Sig (1664 Siig); Gamsmark ( 1664 Gamsmarck) and Bremsløv (1664 Bremszløff). Furthermore the house Kneberholm (1688 Kneberholms Huusz). Underbjerg was also earlier named Tørringbjerg (1595 Under Thøringbierigh).

The railway Vemb-Lemvig-Thyborøn runs through the parish

A railway station named Victoria Street Station

Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s:

Tørring ( 1330-48 Tiringh, 1482 Tøring); Balleby ( 1523 Bolliby, 1595 Balbye); Gransgårde (1595 Grandtzbøll, 1664 Granndtzgaard); Underbjerg ( 1642 Under bierig); Lomforbæk (1595 Lombforbeck); Søgårde ( * 1462 Søegaardtz jordt); Kokholm (1547 Kockholm); Kallesø (* 1499 Kalsøø, 1558 Kallidsøe); Vadskærgård ( * ab. 1400 Vaseker, Vasekær, 1531 Waskiergaard, Weskergord); Lykkesgård (1628 Lyckisgaard); Ager (1638 Auer); Halegård (1638 Halgaard); Eskebæk (1638 Eskibeck); Nørkær (1638 Ved Kiær); Sejbjerg (1638 Seibiere); Lindskrog (1664 Lindz Krog); Stor (1664 Stoer); Veje (1614 Veye); Poldbjerg (1604 Pølborrig, 1688 Polborre boell); Bæksgård (1638 Begsgaard); Lovmandsgård ( 1549 Mattis Laamannds gaardt, 1638 Loumandsgaard); Hummersgård (1549 Las Hommers gårde,1638 Hummersgaardt).

Listed prehistorics:
18 hills, mainly on the hills north and east of Tørring Church, partly east and southeast of Kokholm. Several are rather large, like: 3 hills, i.e. Bavnehøj north of the church, Kløvenhøj at Kokholm and 3 hills west of Kallesø.
Demolished or destroyed: 27 hills. - In the small moor Sortkær southeast of Kallesø was found a clay vessel with 1800 amber pearls from the beginning of late Stone Age. In a hill at Nr. Kokholm was found a very rich grave from early Bronze Age, with sword and skaftehulsøkse ( axe) in bronze.

Source: Trap Danmark, Ringkøbing amt,1965.

photo Tørring kirke/ Thyborøn jernbane 2003: grethe bachmann

Thursday, August 02, 2012

Gisselfeld and Bråby church/ Bråby kirke, Ringsted herred,Sorø amt, Zealand.

Gisselfeld, Bråby parish, Ringsted herred, Sorø amt.

Gisselfeld is built upon an islet in the socalled gårdsø.( farm lake)The three-storeyed plan is built in red monk bricks under a red tiled roof. It has three wings with a protruding gate to the north, a stair tower in the yard at the west wing and a barrier wall to the south. The north wing with gate is the earliest and was the main building of Gisselfeld. Two side wings, the east- and west wing, were added and they were finished before 1575. 

Gisselfeld is similar to contemporary manors at the island Funen, like Hesselagergård and Egeskov. Some defense devices are similar, like the watchman's galleries with scalding holes and arrow slits and a decorative frieze under the roof. The Gothic glares are similar to Egeskov's and the stepped gables are seen in many Danish manors of Gothic Renaissance, like Østergård in Salling (North Jutland) and Vallø at Stevns (Zealand).

Gisselfeld, café and restaurant at the entrance.

Peder Oxe let the plan surround by an outer wall to the northwest with three towers, from which two towers, parts of the wallwork and Peder Oxe's big farm building by the road are preserved.  Upon the castle bank on the islet was built a low wing to the east in the late 1600s.

Gisselfeld was restored in 1869-74, which removed the addition from the Baroque, and in another restore in 1915 Peder Oxe's Gisselfeld was brought to light by using modern restoration principles with respect for the original building material,most of all the burnt monk bricks.

Avenue with special cut trees.

The three wings of Gisselfeld contain magnificent cultural treasures, mainly connected to the Danneskiold- Samsøe- family, which resided at Gisselfeld since 1699. First of all the collection of porcelaine, a collection which was established in the late 1700s. Danish, German and Chinese porcelaine. The Flora Danica takes up an entire room.  Chinese and Ostindian porcelaine dominate the socalled "porcelænsgang" in the north wing, and Louis XV and Meissen-porceleina  complete the lavish collection, which is spread in many rooms and halls.   The furnishing , Gustavian and Baroque, but also modern, is exquisite, like the collection of paintings, especially portrait paintings of the family Danneskiold-Samsøe and its close connection to the royal family.

Paradehuset and the orangery.

One of the most beautiful manor parks in Denmark lies here at Gisselfeld, in a lovely, hilly landscape with lakes. The park was founded already in Peder Oxe's time, where the little lakes by the main building was made into carp ponds. The landscape garden was established in the 1890s by the English landscape architect Milner, who is known from his work at Knuthenborg at Lolland and Tranekær at Langeland. Fountains and arbors and waterfalls make the background of the florals, the rare trees and bushes. The fine and protected glasshouse Paradehuset with orangery from 1879 lies close to the entrance. It is open to the public at the same time as the park. The orangery is filled with exotic and beautiful plants, and some are for sale.

Gisselfeld is mentioned already in the 1300s, but it was probably only a lesser main farm which was situated ab. 2 km northwest of its present place, where the castle bank Spegedynen is still seen as a square surrounded by a moat.When Peder Oxe became the sole owner of G. in 1547, he broke down the old main building and built the present. Upon the castle island in the lake was in 1898 by the National Musum found the base of an ab. 15 m long rectangular building from an early farm Valgestrup, which, possibly between 1527 and 1541, and probably in the civil war  - was destroyed,  whereafter the land came under G.

The earliest known owner was Bo Falk, who is mentioned of G. in 1370, he had probably taken it over from his father Peder Falk.  The next known owner was Eskil Falk, who is mentioned of G. in 1384. He was succeeded by his son Peder Falk, who is mentioned of G. in 1410.  After him came the brother Eskil Falk (+ earliest 1421), whose daughter Ida married hr. Mogens Axelsen Gøye of Krænkerup (+ earliest 1450). Their son, the marsk hr. Eskil Gøye (+ 1506) inherited G., which after him by a siblings' exchange in 1508 came to his youngest son hr. Henrik Gøye (+ 1533), the wellknown supporter of Chr. II and the defender of Copenhagen in 1523-24. Henrik Gøye had to borrow 4650 mark lybsk ( for pawn and first right to buy G.) from his brother, rigshofmester hr. Mogens Gøye and Otto Holgersen Rosenkrantz. He sold G. however in 1527 to his relative, rigsråd Johan Oxe of Nielstrup (+ 1534), and this ended in a long-winding feud between the Gøye- and the Oxe-family, since Mogens Gøye stood firm on his first right to buy G. A judgment at the King's Thing was mostly in Mogens Gøye's favor, but it brought no final solution. A new judgment of 1539 and an agreement in 1541 brought a final decision, whereafter G. belonged to Johan Oxe's heirs, represented by the son, the wellknown statesman, rigshofmester Peder Oxe (+ 1575),who became the sole owner of G. in 1545.

Peder Oxe improved G. by extension of the land and the farms, and carried through several operational improvements and laid out the still existing carp fishing. During his exile in 1558-66 his estates were taken by the Crown, but in 1566 he got his property back; G. was even improved with judicial rights (birkeret). Peder Oxe died in 1575, he left no children, and G. came to his widow, Mette Rosenkrantz of Vallø (+ 1588). In the following exchange G. - which was reduced from the inherital dividing of the estate - came to Peder Oxe's sister's daughter Karen Banner (+ 1616), who in 1580 married Henrik Lykke of Overgård (+ 1611), after whom it was taken over by the son Christian Lykke (+ 1619) and his brother, the later rigsråd Frands Lykke (+ 1655), who by inheritance and buy gathered the divided estate - and after him it went to his son, the famous Kaj Lykke (+ 1699), after whose decrease G. was taken over by the Crown in 1661.

Frederik II left G. to his son arveprins (crown prince) Christian (later Chr. V.), who often resided at G. After his accession to the throne he transferred it in 1670 to the famous general from the Swedish wars, Hans Schack (1671 lensgreve of Schackenborg + 1676), who the same year transferred it to his son-in-law, oberstløjtnant Ditlev Rumohr of Röst (+ 1678), who 7/1 1671 by Chr. V got an exchange-deed of G., but after his wife's death the same year he transferred it back to Hans Schack, whose widow Anna Blome (+ 1688) owned it until 1682, where she transferred it to her son Otto Diderik greve Schack (+ 1683), whose widow Sophie Dorothea Marschalk (+ 1707) in 1689 sold it to Adam Levin Knuth  (+ 1699), who also owned the nearby Assendrup (in Tybjerg herred). A village Hesede had been abandoned, and Knuth established in 1691 the farm Hesedegård from its land, a farm which stayed under G., but later was leased out as an independent main farm. In 1699 his heirs conveyed G. with Assendrup to Chr. V.'s son with Sophie Amalie Moth, Christian greve Gyldenløve of Samsø (+ 1703), ancestor of the Danneskiold-Samsøe family. The family is connected to Gisselfeld from 1699 up till the present day.

Gisselfeld Kloster (formally Gisselfeld Adelige Jomfrukloster in Zealand) is a foundation, which was established in a will by Christian V.s illegitimate son with Sophie Amalie Moth, Christian Gyldenløve in 1701-1702. The foundation is not a "kloster" in a traditional sense, but a socalled jomfrukloster. The inscribed kloster-ladies - konventualinder at Gisselfeld - had to be unmarried and of noble status and birth, but contrary to the ladies at Vallø and Vemmetofte jomfrukloster they did not reside at the kloster. Gisselfeld kloster is managed and directed by an overdirektør, who according to the original fundats is elected among male grever of the family Danneskiold-Samsøe. The gender discrimination in the fundats is however declared invalid according to the Gender equality Act. The overdirektør of Gisselfeld has his private residence in the main building of the kloster (the castle).

A case around Gisselfed is still pending these years. The overdirektør Erik greve Danneskiold-Samsøe was suspended by the former management, and he has lead a trial since, he wants to get his job back, but he also wants to have the court's words for that Christian Gyldenløve's over 300 year old fundats should be followed still today, he has not been upheld by the court though. During the years there have been case after case and it is  much too complicated to describe. The Gisselfeld-case ended in the supreme court in 2011. (Not finished)

The Ugly Duckling
Hans Christian Andersen wrote during a stay at Gisselfeld the fairy tale The Ugly Duckling (Den Grimme Ælling.

Listed prehistorics: At Hesede the dolmen chamber Kejshave Stendysse, in Gisselfeld Dyrehave 6 hills, of which one is rather large.
Demolished or destroyed: a long dolmen west of Bråby and 9 hills in the fields of Gisselfeld.

Names in the Middle Ages: Bråby (1342 Broby østræ); Sø Torup (1456 Tordrop, 1561 Søtourup); Gisselfeld (1370 Ghyselfel, 1410 Gislæfællæ); Hesede (1290 Hyrsæt, 1342 Hirsædæ).

Source: Trap Danmark, Sorø amt, 1954; Danmarks slotte og herregårde, Niels Peter Stilling, 1997.  

landscape near Bråby.

Bråby church/ Bråby kirke, Ringsted herred, Sorø amt.
The church in Bråby has a Romanesque nave with Gothic additions: tower, north chapel and porch and longhouse-choir from ab. 1570. The Romanesque nave - from which are kept the longwalls and a little of the gable - is a limestone building. There is only preserved one detail, a walled window east of the door-place to the south. A big chapel was added ab. 1500 in tile and limestone, furnished for a herskabsstol ( manor stool) and burial chamber ab. 1695, restored in 1903.The tiled gable-field has a rich glare decoration in South Zealand type, from the same time is the belt-walled western tower, which has a straight-running stair in the north wall, and the porch to the south in tile and like the tower very rebuilt with small stones. The longhouse-choir was built ab. 1570 by Peder Oxe in tile with two vaults, which have been renewed like the vaults of the nave. Restoration in 1877 and 1880.

The altarpiece is a painting, signed Constantin Hansen 1833 in contemporary neo Gothic frame. A house-altarpiece from 1579 with an alabaster-relief and portrait-paintings of Peder Oxe and Mette Rosenkrantz, which were in the church for a period, but is now kept at Gisselfeld. Chalice given in 1681 by Hans Schack. Strange, profiled altar candelabres upon a square foot, given by Adam Levin Knuth 1698. Upon the chasuble an embroideret crucifix and year 1722. A Romanesque limetone font, Gotland work from ab. 1180, a unique scuplture work by the master "Anonymus Calcarius" with rich symbolic reliefs A baptismal dish, south German ab. 1550 with engraved coat of arms of Frands Lykke and Lisbeth Brok 1626. A pompous late Baroque choir rail from 1695 with double-doors and crucifix. a pulpit from 1938. In front of the manor stool in the north chapel is a closed gallery from 1695 with the coat of arms of Adam Levin Knuth. Two cast steel bells, 1874 and 1880.

A magnificent epitaph ab. 1560 in Gotland limestone for Peder Oxe (+ 1575), which is a very important work of art, from Copenhagen or Skåne. (Scania). Peder Oxe is not buried here. In the porch 5 gravestones from the 1700s. In the burial chamber 3 coffins: 1) Adam Levin Knuth, +1699, a splendid coffin, dressed in copper;  2) Sophia Ulfeldt + 1698 and 3) Hilleborg Holck, + 1724. Upon the churh yard is a strange monument, a pyramid with inscription: "Maria was always virtuous".

Source Bråby church: Trap Danmark, Sorø amt, 1954.