Thursday, October 28, 2010

Gammellund, Mors, North Jutland, Thisted amt.

Gammellund, ab. 20 km southwest of Nykøbing Mors
Øster Assels sogn, Morsø Sønder herred, Thisted amt.

Gammellund is is now situated far from the beaten track on the southernest tip of the island Mors, where the hills end in the salt beach meadows along the coast of Limfjorden. The farm is now unimpressive and outparcelled, but it was once a grand place. Lund or Lundegård was the king's permanent castle, placed by the important arterial road (adelvejen = nobility road), leading from Thyholm through Mors, first across Tambo Sound to Jegindø, next a short sailing trip to Hester Odde at Mors. Between Sillerslev Øre and Nymølle in Salling was a ferry route of importance.

There were often feuds about the disposals of the ferry routes among the inhabitants in north and south - in 1598 Henrik Below of Spøttrup tried in vain to prevent the vasal at Lund, Thomas Fasti, in using the ferry at Nymølle (belonged to Spøttrup) - and as late as ab. 1850 Gammellund's owner fought with the Jegindø- commoners about the ferry-privilege. The first historically known owner of Lund, hr. Johan Gotskalksen Skarpenberg, who wrote himself of the farm in 1404, had a large estate south of the Limfjord, among others Spøttrup.

Salling, Nymølle nær færgested "Pinen og Plagen".

The large, overgrown castle bank, which is in the garden just north of the farm, reminds of the vanished greatness of Lund. The bank rises steep from the moat, which had an outer bank on three sides. The fourth bank is levelled, measuring ab. 80 x 53 m and was by a cross moat divided in two. This is a so-called castrum-curia plan, which had its actual fortification upon a lesser, now out-digged northeastern bank, while the buildings were at the large southwestern bank, which was with buildings until 1818. The earliest buildings were probably wood- or half-timbered houses, although bricks have been found, but the plan must be from before Skarpenberg's time.

The Skarpenberg family was one of several North German magnate-families, who came to Denmark in the 14th century, when the Holstein princes infiltrated the Nordic countries. Hr. Johan's father Gotskalk Skarpenberg had via marriage to Niels Bugge's daughter Elisabeth (Lisbeth) achieved a large estate. Spøttrup and Højriis belonged to the estate, which hr. Johan sold, but he was also said to have lost Lund. According to legend he had to give his estate to the Crown and escape land and kingdom , because he had burnt down a royal castle. It is doubtful, if there is any historical base of this, for Skarpenberg was one of the mightiest men in the kingdom and one of queen Margrethe's most trusted men. He is probably mentioned as a rigsråd in 1417, but was dead four years later and buried in Viborg cathedral. But his estate at Mors made later up a royal vasalry with own judicial rights, which included Vester and Øster Assels parish. In 1605 was Jegindø parish added.

Salling, Spøttrup Castle

In 1651 were Lund plus Bustrup in Salling laid out to two of the Crown's creditors, two brother's-in-law, Hamburg-merchants Albert Baltzer Berns and Leonhard Marselis. When Bern's daughter Elisabeth in 1654 married her father's earlier trainee and later partner, admiralitetsråd Poul Klingenberg, she probably brought Lund to him. Klingenberg was ennobled in 1669 - he belonged to those creditors of the Crown, who after 1660 by lay out was given much estate (Dueholm, Hanerau), and he bought himself more estate (Højriis, Ørum). Beyond his business he went into the government service in an active way and reorganized the mail services. But it proved, that he overreached himself and had too much bad estate; besides he was involved in transactions leading to lawsuits, which finally brought him on the verge of bankruptcy. Five years before his death he had in 1685 to give up the mail services, but he transferred at the same time Lund, Højriis and Ørum as a maternal inheritance to his only son, Poul von Klingenberg; thus it was saved for the family.

Mors, Gammellund, castle bank

In 1724 more than 40% of the peasant-estate at Mors still belonged to the Klingenberg-family, but Lund was hardly inhabited. Both the young Poul von Klingenberg (+ 1723) and his son, etatsråd Frederik Christian von Klingenberg, resided at Højriis. The last mentioned's widow, Anne Cathrine von Bülow married in 1751 oberst Philip Gotfred von Samitz, and the following year was built a new main building at Lund, a four-winged, half-timbered building plan with tailed roofs. Samitz died in 1762, his widow a year after, whereafter Lund and Blistrup plus taxes and peasant-estate were sold to kancelliråd Thomas Thomsen Lund at Grinderslev Kloster.

Thomas Lund is one of more interesting owners. He was born in 1727 at the manor Slumstrup, and he first speculated in estate-trading, before he came to Mors. He was an energetic farmer - there are legends about him as a "peasant-tormentor". The ghost of the one-legged "Thomas Pileben" (pile = dart off) is still riding his horse between Øster Assels and Gammellund, and in 1805 was written that his name was still mentioned in fear. But the management of the farm was improved, and in 1768 he built a solid farmbuilding. He also established tileworks, limeworks and a faience- and stoneware factory, founded by royal privilege as the first outside Copenhagen. But in spite of good materials and sales' conditions the factory became a big disappointment, and he died a ruined man in 1777. Already before his death estate and factory were at auction, but it was his widow, who in 1778 sold to Hans Meulengracht and Saxo Aschanius.

Mors, landscape

The new owners continued the factory-work, but this only lasted for a short time. In 1784 Meulengracht left the partnership, and it seems the work had come to a stop. The factory building is still mentioned in 1798 in a fire-evaluation. Aschanius died in 1788, and his widow sold six years later the estate to two estate-speculators, landsdommerne Peter Severin Fønss and Henrik Johan de Leth, who sold out more than 300 *tønder hectare peasant-estate, whereafter they in 1798 let the rests pass on to Viborg's byfoged Thomas Wissing. In 1804 he achieved royal permission to divide the manor in two parcels, Lund and Peterslund,which had happened already the previous year.

Lund now went from hand to hand; in 1818 Chr. Jacobsen of Hegnet took over the property, which was divided once again, since the parcel Katrinelund was laid out. From here was Nylund later laid out. Oberst v. Samitz' main building was broken down, and the living quarters were moved away from the old castle bank. An earlier horse stable and cart shed, which were placed at Thomas Lunds farm building, were now farmhouse. This simple white-washed building still stands, while the big barn from 1768 burnt down in 1945.
Gammellund, which the strongly reduced main parcel is called, was sold in 1818 to Chr. Jacobsen's son-in-law Søren de Stiernholm and came in 1823 to Christian Riis at Blistrup, who in 1846 gave it to his daughter's son, rigsdagsmand, justitsråd Johan Chr. Bonne, who had it until 1880. The estate changed owner a few times, until it was sold to J. Jensen in 1929. Large tracts were out-parcelled in 1936, and Gammellund was now just a farm of 70 *tønder land, which in 1966 belonged to Laurits Jensen.

* 1 tønde land = ab. 0,55 hectare = 5.516,2 m²

Source: Trap Danmark, Thisted amt, Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 12, Nordvestjylland, 1966, ved arkivar Flemming Jerk.

photo 2002/2007: grethe bachmann.

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