Friday, July 24, 2009

Dronninglund church/ Dronninglund kirke and Dronninglund, Dronninglund herred, Hjørring amt.

Dronninglund was once a klosterkirke. It stands as a wing from the southeastern corner of the present manor. The large building has a late Romanesque nave, to which were added cross arms in the late Gothic period and a longhouse choir and tower in the Renaissance. The walls are built in well-burnt and mainly glazed bricks. In the late Gothic period the original walls were heightened and east of them were built cross wings with cross vaults, while the nave got an octagonal vault. The additions contain considerable amounts of Romanesque ashlar material, probably from a demolished church building. At the north side of the old nave was added a porch. Probably in connection to the rebuild of the kloster into a manor was built a slender brick tower. At the same time the large present choir was formed. The whole white-washed building was restored in 1941-43, and interesting frescoes were brought to life from various periods.

The very large altar piece is a Renaissance-work from ab. 1600 with later decorations. Upon the postament are partly Sophie Hedevig's (Fr. IV's sister) initials and national coat of arms, 1716 , and partly C.G.Moltke's and Catherine Christine v. Cicignon's initials, 1775. A large, heavy chalice given by Sophie Hedevig 1729. Candelabres neo-classicistic, ab. 1800. A Romanesque granite font with large carved curves upon the basin and a cubical foot with approach to corner leaves, probably by master Niels. A south German baptismal bowl from ab. 1575. A baptismal grating and a font sounding board from 1723 (given by Sophie Hedevig). A pulpit in early Renaissance ab. 1580, given by Hans Lindenov with a sounding board in bruskbarok (bruskbarok: DK 1630-60) . Herskabsstole ( pews, herskab = master and mistress) with the coat of arms of Hans Lindenov and Margrethe Rosenkrans, the other pews from the same time and from the 1700s. Herskabspulpitur (Master and mistress-gallery) in the west end of the nave from the same workshop as the altar piece. Organ and gallery in the northern cross wing from ab. 1760, given by C.G.v. Moltke. Church bells 1) from 1549 2) re-cast 1909 from a bell from 1493. Several burial memorials from the 1600s and 1700s.

The present manor Dronninglund came into existence from Hundslund kloster, a Benedictine-kloster, mentioned earliest in 1268 and hardly was much older; but information about its establishment is missing. The ancient tradition which let bishop Odinkar (the Young) (+ 1043) be the founder has no truth in the sources. Hundslund kloster became gradually one of the richest in the country. In 1393 queen Margrethe established a daily mass in the church for herself and her parents; therefore she gave various estate to the kloster, partly in Hundslund parish and partly spread estate; furthermore rigsråd Anders Nielsen Banner of Kokkedal (+ 1486) partly gave, partly exchanged in 1457 all his property in Hundslund parish to Hundslund kloster.
In the head of the kloster/convent was a prioress (1482 Karen Jensdatter), while a prior (often a secular nobleman)took care of the estate; as such are mentioned 1401 Johan Asgotsen, 1418 Laurens, 1436 Mads, 1457-77 Erngisl Jensen, 1481-97 Markvard Pedersen Juel (Krabbe-J.), 1503-08 Niels Pedersen and in 1520-22 mester Anders Olufsen Hak (Gyldenstierne) of Palsgård (+ 1534) . During the Clemensfeud the convent suffered much. It was for a time endowed to a peasant. In 1535 the nuns complained to Chr. III that the Børglum bishop Stygge Krumpen had forced them out of their convent in a very cruel way, and they begged to come back to their convent with a prioress. They did, and jomfru Johanne Mogensdatter became the prioress.
After the reformation in 1536 Hundslund kloster came to the Crown but the nuns were allowed to stay, still in a letter from 1574 it is said that the vasal must see to that the nuns get clothes and food according to the usual custom, and in a sheet from 1581 is mentioned the obligation to take care of two still living sisters. In 1537 Gabriel Gyldenstierne of Restrup was vasal at Hundslund kloster; other later vasals were Eskild Gøye of Gunderslevholm (+ 1560), Erik Podebusk (+ 1559), Anne Olufsdatter Krognos (+ earliest 1574), etc. In 1581 the king exchanged Hundslund with most of the copyhold estate (farms, houses, fishing rights etc) to Hans Johansen Lindenov of Fovslet (N. Tyrstrup herred); after his death his widow Margrethe Ottesdatter Rosenkrantz lived at Hundslund, which then came to the son rigsråd Hans Johansen Lindenov ("the Rich") (+ 1642) and since his son Jakob Lindenov (+1672) who established the ladegård (farm buildings) Skovsgård (later Dronninggård). As well he as his wife Christence Tygesdatter Brahe died 1672 without leaving any children; their heirs sold H. to kansler Peder Reedtz of Børglumkloster; he died already in 1674 and his wife Anne Ramel + 1702 sold H. in 1690 together with Skovsgård to queen Charlotte Amalie, who let the two farms/manors name Dronninglund and Dronninggård. She often stayed there, i.e. in 1702, 1704 and 1708. After her death in 1714 Dronninglund and Dronninggård were inherited by Frederik IV, who in 1716 exchanged these estates to his sister Sophie Hedevig. Later the princess conveyed Dronninglund, Dronninggård and Hals ladegård to overkammerherre Carl Adolf v. Plessen as a repayment for her brother Carl's debt to him. Various owners up til present .
The large white-washed building contains part of Hundslund kloster's late medieval buildings. In its present look it is a three-winged plan, which opens to the north, where the castle yard is limited by a fence-wall with a wrought-iron gate.

Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s:
Hjallerup (* 1457 Hialldrup, Hialdrop); Ørsø ( 1581 Ørresiøe); Dorf (1662 Wester Dor, 1688 Øster Dorf); Torup (* 1457 Thorup, Tordrop); Tolstrup (1406 Tholstorp); Try ( 1581 Trye); Bolle(* 1410 Bolling, 1510 Bollo); Tvedegårde ( 1662 Tuedensgaard); Skrydsholt ( 1581 Skrydtsholt); Ørsøgårde ( 1662 Ørsegaard); Lundager ( 1581 Lunderagger); Hulen (1688 Hollen); Ringstedbrønd ( 1662 Rinsted Brind); Storskoven (1688 Sehoven); Torsholm (* 1457 Torphollm); Melvad (1581 Medelwad); Blæsbjerg (1662 Blesberig); Sudergårde (1581 Suddergaard); Dal ( 1581 Dalle); Solholt (1581 Suolholt); Kvisselholt (Qvissilholt); Kobbermølle (1688 Liden Kaaber Mølle); Byrvang (* 1465 Byerwang); Rævbakke ( 1688 Reef Bachen); Kylllingborg (1662 Kiuflingborigh); Tidselbak (1662 Thiselbachen); Landvad ( 1662 Laaen Wad); Holtet (1581 Hølthet); Storskoven (15688 Schoven) .

Hjallerup marked was once Denmark's largest market (horses); it was held at Hundslund kloster and it owes probably its origin from the kloster or sacred springs.

Listed prehistorics: A hill with a dolmen chamber near Rosenby, 129 hills and 10 longhills, mainly in the hillside: among the longhills the 93 m long Pyldbørdysse, the 80 m long Langedys and a 90 m longhill at Rosenby. From the round hills many large: At the highest point in Vendsyssel in Storskoven is Knøsen, not far away from there is Knaghøj. 6 1/2 m high are Galgehøj at Hjallerup and one of Abhøje at Torup; above 5 m high are Storhøj and Svollerhøj, 4-4 1/2 m high Galgehøj and Krysterhøj, both at Dorf, and Røverhøj in Storskoven.
Demolished or destroyed: 136 hills and one longhill; besides a stone cist at Torsholm, where were found 8 flint daggers, and one Stone Age grave at Try Møllegård, where were found a flint axe and an amber pearl.

Source: Trap Danmark, Hjørring amt, 1960

photo Dronninglund 2003: grethe bachmann

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