Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Høgholm/Høegholm, Djursland, East Jutland, Randers amt.

Høgholm/Høegholm, ab. 14 km southwest of Grenå
Tirstrup sogn, Djursland Sønder herred, Randers amt.

Høgholm's original name was Bjørnholm, but when Iver Juul Høeg in 1681 founded the barony Høgholm, it got this name, while the present farm Bjørnholm in the same parish was established in 1806 after the break down of the barony.

From the 14th. century Bjørnholm belonged to the family Hvide, and in 1331 it was owned by hr. Stig Andersen Hvide. Skjalm Hvide's family actually never used this family-name; the Stig-sons' family used it probably shortly before the family died out in the 16th century. It is only on the maternal side that the Stig-sons are related to Skjalm Hvide's family. Marsk Stig Andersens two first wives were probably of the Hvide-family ( also third wife) *; he neither used the name or the coat of arms, the seven-pointed star in his shield. There are no informations if he also owned Bjørnholm, but his son ridder Anders Stigsen of Tygestrup (Kongsdal) owned the farm and after him his son Stig Andersen Hvide (the Young) had inherited Bjørnholm and Tygestrup; he was named after his famous paternal grandfather marsk Stig, who according to tradition killed king Erik Klipping. When Christoffer II in 1320 became king, the family of the marsk could return to their homeland, and the superior of the family Stig Andersen Hvide the Young took again possession of a great part of the family-estate. Upon Djursland he built in the following years the castle Bjørnholm, maybe in the place where the present Høgholm is situated; but in the garden of a farm Obdrupgård in the neighbouring parish, which in the 15th century was a farm-building of Bjørnholm, is a castle bank, a circular bank, which is 6 m high and 20 m diameter; it is surrounded by a moat, around which is a circular dike.

*Marsk Stig's three marriages: 1) Ossa Nielsdatter, who was a son's daughter's daughter-daughter of Skjalm Hvide's son's son Toke Ebbesen; 2) Ingeborg Palnesdatter (Little); 3) and a daughter NN of the drost hr. Offe Nielsen Neb, whose maternal grandmother's paternal grandfather was Skjalm Hvide's son's son Sune Ebbesen, whose father was Ebbe Skjalmsen (+ 1150) who is the ancestor of the family Galen. (see blog Medieval Danish Families; Forfædrelinie III)

Stig Andersen Hvide the Young led the Jutland nobility's rebellion against the royal power from Bjørnholm. In 1331 he was grev Gert's (the bald greve) marsk and belonged like hr. Niels Bugge of Hald to the leaders inside the Jutland nobility. After the murder of grev Gert, Stig Andersen went to king Valdemar's party and became governor in Estland for a period, but when king Valdemar in the 1350s began his large reduction of the estate, which during the turbulent years in Denmark had slipped from the Crown, the friendship ended between the two men; Valdemar took from Stig Andersen a great part of the estate he had got from grev Gert, and even though ridder Stig might not have participated in the great revolt against the king in 1357, he broke with him in 1359, after his son and brother had been killed together with Niels Bugge in Middelfart in January 1359. The king was under suspicion of having ordered the killings. Also during the 1360s Stig Andersen fought against the royal power.

In 1362 he decided that Bjørnholm should go to his murdered son hr. Ove Stigsen's two sons Jens and Anders Ovesen. Jens Ovesen had married successfully; he was married to drost Claus Limbeks daughter Elisabeth; they had one half of the farm after Stig Andersen's death in 1369; the other half went to hr. Anders Ovesen ( + ab.1420), and since his son Ove Andersen died unmarried, his mother fru Else Krognos, brought her part of Bjørnholm to her second husband, rigshofmester Otte Nielsen Rosenkrantz. Bjørnholm became his main estate; he gradually outbought several of the many co-owners. In 1441 he bought a part from hr. Ove Tagesen Reventlow, and in 1445 Christoffer af Bayern gave him a part, which had belonged to the executed Henrik Tagesen Reventlow. In 1444 and 1468 he bought hr. Mogens Ebbesen Galt's and Holger Munk's parts, which they had got via their mother-in-law Inger Andersdatter Hvide. In 1459 he outbought Anders Ebbesen Galt and the same year Chr. I gave him judicial rights at Bjørnholm.

Otte Nielsen Rosenkrantz was for some years a vasal at the nearby castle Kalø. After 1448 he was a rigshofmester and participated in important political actions. In the late 1460s he retired from politics and died probably in 1477. After him his son hr. Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz was the owner of Bjørnholm. He was rigshofmester and later rigsråd. He was a great collector of estate, in a document from 1499 is written that he owned 800 peasant-farms. He outbought several part-owners of Bjørnholm and died in 1503. After him came his son Niels Eriksen Rosenkrantz (+ 1516), his sons Henrik Nielsen Rosenkrantz (+ 1537) and Christoffer Nielsen Rosenkrantz ( + 1561), they were both unmarried, so from 1561 the farm was again divided into several parts; the following period the owners were various Danish noble families:Krabbe, Thott, Skram and again Krabbe, who on the maternal side descended from the Rosenkrantz´,who got the largest part of the estate. In 1612 Bjørnholm was laid out to creditors. Among the new part-owners were Hans and Iver Dyre and Jørgen Kruse, who sold to fru Ellen Rostrup, whose part in 1627 went to Abel Bryske.

Just Høg (Banner) is already in 1614 written to Bjørnholm, and he gathered the farm again. After his death in 1649 Bjørnholm went to his son Erik Høg (+ 1673) and then to his son Iver Juul Høg (+ 1683), who in 1681 was allowed to establish the barony Høgholm from the three farms/manors Bjørnholm, Fævejle and Lykkesholm. The farm then got its present name Høgholm. His widow fru Helle Trolle, who was married the second time to Palle Krag of Katholm, kept - after her unmarried son baron Niels Trolle Høg's death in 1700 - the barony until her death in 1722; after this it came to lensgreve Christian Danneskiold-Samsøe, the great book collector. After him Høgholm went to his son Frederik Christian Danneskiold-Samsøe, but he had at last to sell his estates, among others the grevskaber (counties) Samsøe and Løvenholm and the baronies Høgholm and Lindenborg. The barony Høgholm was abolished 1748. From 1754 one owner followed the other. In 1805 it was sold to the wellknown godsslagter (estate-slaughter) generalkrigskommissær Poul Marcussen of Krastrup, who sold the estate and was allowed to do outparcelling of the land of the main-farm. Various owners. Owner from 1950 Kay Schmidt.

In 1763 is told that the buildings were half-timbered, but earlier was inside the overgrown moats a large, brick-building in two storeys with towers and spires. In 1788 Pauline Sehested let Anders Kruuse build a new main building in two storeys above cellar. The present main building from 1888-89 is probably of the same size although it has only one storey above the cellar, and it is possibly only a radical re-build of Kruuse's house in neo-Gothic style. Some old half-timbered farm-buildings are preserved.

Source: Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 14, Djursland, Høgholm, af lektor, cand. mag. fru Elin Bach.

foto Høgholm 2009: grethe bachmann

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