Friday, August 24, 2012

Bregentved Castle, Zealand

and Haslev church

Bregentved is the center in a hilly Zealand manor landscape, surrounded by long, old avenues and wide fields. The mighty three-winged, whitewashed main building is in Neo Rococo style, built ab. 1890. It is one of the largest estates in Denmark. 

The big park was originally laid out as a Baroque garden in the middle of the 1700s. In the French inspired style are long straight avenues with fontains, ponds, memorials etc., but the hilly terrain is also perfect for an English landscape garden, and the regularity of the Baroque is interrupted by surprising views and garden houses.

Bregentved is synonymous with the great Moltke family. but the estate is known already from the 1300s, where it belonged to the Grubbe-family:
Bregentved was a manor already from 1382, when the væbner Olauus Grwbbæ (Grubbe) in Skovklosters dødebog (deathbook) is mentioned of B. His widow Margrethe married hr. Erik Bydelsbak (+ latest 1414), who still in 1410 wrote himself of B.,  and after him it went to the widow Bodil and then to the son, rigsråd hr. Laurids Eriksen Bydelsbak (+ earliest 1433), whose heirs sold it to hr. Niels Pedersen Gyldenstierne of Ågård (+ 1456). After him followed his son rigsråd hr. Mourids Nielsen Gyldenstierne of Ågård etc. (+ ab. 1504), whose daughter Anne Mouridsdatter (+ 1545) in her first marriage brought B. to rigsråd hr. Oluf Stigsen Krognos of Krapperup and Bollerup (+ 1506) and in her second marriage to rigsråd hr. Predbjørn Podebusk of Kørup, Vosborg, Bidstrup etc. (+ 1541), earlier a vasal at Skjoldenæs. In the first time after fru Anne's death the owner-conditions are unclear. For a period B. was owned by her daughter's son Bent Bille (+ 1555), but also her son hr. Mourids Olufsen Krognos of Krapperup and Bollerup, vasal at Skjoldenæs ( + 1550), is mentioned as the owner of B. and in the exchange after him his son, later rigsråd and manager of Herlufsholm school Oluf Mouridsen Krognos (+ 1573) took over B.

He died the last male of his family, and B. was inherited by his mother's brother Christoffer Gøye of Avnsbjerg, Clausholm, Gunderslevholm, and Bollerup, (+ 1584), who in 1581 sold it to rigsråd Steen Brahe of Tersløse, Næsbyholm and Knudstrup (+ 1620). From his son Erik Brahe of Knudstrup (+ 1631) it went in 1630 to his brother-in-law Falk Gøye of Skærsø (+ 1643), who sold it already the same year to the vasal at Frederiksborg and Kronborg Frederik Urne of Alslev (+ 1658). His widow Karen Hansdatter Arenfeldt (+ 1673) had in 1665-68 established the main farm Arenfeldtsborg from two villages Pederstrup and Holte. Because of this she was heavily in debt and had in 1668 to sell B. to her son-in-law, viceroy in Norway Ove Juul of Villestrup (+ 1686), who in 1682 sold it to his son-in-law, later viceroy in Norway Frederik Gabel of Bavelse and Giesegård (+ 1708), who reunited Arenfeldtsborg with B. When he died heavily in debt B. was in 1709 put on auction but bought by his son Christian Carl Gabel (+ 1748) of Giesegård.

Later owners: 1718 Frederik IV,  sold 1731 to Poul de Løvenørn, known from battle at Poltava. His son Frederik de Løvenørn, (+ 1779), sold 1779 to Chr. VI., owner from 1746 Adam Gottlob Moltke (+ 1792), and  Bregentved  owned by the Moltke family since.

Haslev church.
Ringsted herred, Sorø amt.
The church is heavily marked by an extension 1914-16. It has a complicated building history, since it contains rests of a small Romanesque church, nave and choir and apse. Rests of an original window in the choir are now at the National Museum. The building was already in the 1200s extended to the east. At the same time the nave was extended to the west; later, probably in the 1300s was choir and nave extended in the width, which was unusual, the whole southwall was removed and built in bricks 2-2 1/2 m to the south and the east gable of the choir war renewed. The building got a cross vault at the same time. The roof gable of the choir is probably from the middle of the 1400s. Shortly before the reformation the church got four extensions, all in bricks: sacristy and chapel to the north, porch to the south and a western tower with a stair house on the south side. In the big extension 1914-16 a new nave and choir were built across the old church, which is now cross arms, since the old nave's north wall and the eastern section of the chapel was removed and new windows were inserted all over. The new choir is at the south. During a restoration were found tiles from the 1300s; they are now at the National Museum - and foundations from the southwalls and apse from the old church were found also.

The altarpiece is an oil painting, a copy of an Eckersberg painting from 1855 in a contemporary neo Gothic frame. The altar silver is from 1716, and a couple of heavy altar candelabres from ab. 1650. Chasuble in silk from ab. 1750. Granite font from 1936, made after sketch by architect Lønborg-Jensen. The former sandstone font is now in the Timoteus church in Copenhagen. A baptismal dish in brass ab. 1700. A crucifix from 1941. From an old choir arch crucifix are only kept the legs of the figure. The pulpit is a Renaissance work from 1579 from the same workshop as the pulpit in Udby (Præstø amt) with the coat of arms of Oluf Krognos and Anna Hardenberg. The sounding board is from ab. 1640-50 with the coat of arms of Fr. Urne and Karen Arenfeldt and the coat of arms of Moltke and Knuth added in 1864. Some gables are kept from the old pews from ab. 1560 and some gables and doors, contemporary to the pulpit, besides parts of a manor stool from 1562 with the coat of arms of Krognos, Juel and Gøye and a top piece with the same coat of arms as the pulpit. The parish clerk stool has Brusk Baroque field with intarsia-like foliage. Bells: 1) from 1615, Hartwig Quellichmeyer; 2) from ab. 1350-75 by Olaf Henriksen.  Gravestones from the 1500s and 1600s. At the National Museum are some coffin mounts from ab. 1600-50 with the coat of arms of the Brahe-family. In 1914 was foound a grave from ab. 1200.  

From the parish: 
In Troelstrup was a lesser main farm, which according to the Roskildebishops jordebog ab. 1370 together with other farms in the village belonged to the bishop. In 1430 this estate was endowed to Laurids Bydelsbak of Bregentved. At the reformation it came to the Crown, which gave Claus Daa of Ravnstrup a life's letter on T., but he exchanged it in 1567 with some estate in Herlufmagle. The same year Peder Oxe of Gisselfeld became the owner by exchange. He laid it under G., but at his death Troelstrupgård was laid out as inheritance for Johanne Oxe. In 1609 it was owned by her relative Helvig Marsvin. In 1630 it was sold to Frands Lykke of Gisselfeld by Erik Normann of Selsø - and  abandoned by Frands Lykke. 

In Haslev was in the Middle Ages a lesser main farm. In 1328 is mentioned Magnus Toddæ of H., who still lived in 1337. Ab. 1370 it seems that the farm was a vasalry of Roskilde bishopric.  In 1398 is mentioned væbner Petrus Dænæ de Haslæ.

Northwest of Bregentved castle, in the socalled Ondemose (Unnemose) lies the castle bank Davrebanken, which is pointed out as the original place of the main farm. It is an almost circular bank (ab. 50 m diameter),which rises 2 meter above the surrounding terrain. The bank was originally surrounded by water and the access was probably from east, where there was only 20 meter's distance to land. It is said that monk bricks were found earlier in the northern side of the bank.

Listed prehistorics: west of Haslev the large dolmen chamber Enghøj. South of Bregentved lies the large hill Koldinghushøj or Troldhøj; in Bregentved deer park 22 wellkept hills( listed from earlier times).  (one is demolished).

Names from the Middle Ages:
Troelstrup (ab. 1370 Thruwelstorp); Bregentved (1410 Brægnethwet).


Source: Trap Danmark, Sorø amt, 1954; Niels Peter Stilling, Danmarks Slotte og Herregårde, 1997.

photo June 2012: grethe bachmann



Kittie Howard said...

Grethe, this is fabulous. I can get lost in these histories so quickly. What it must have been like back then. All the servants. What they did in the winter. I sometimes wonder if they got bored. Ahhh, how the mind wanders.

Thyra said...

Hej Kittie! I hadn't seen your comment here until now! Thank you very much. Comments are so rare here on Church and Manor. I'll tell you why in my mail to you.
Grethe `)