Friday, April 19, 2013

Øland church/ Øland kirke and Oksholm manor, Hjørring amt.

Øland church, ab. 14 km east of Fjerritslev., Google earth.

Øland parish, Øster Han herred, Hjørring amt. 

Øland church -  which represent the north wing of the manor Oksholm, ( former Øland kloster) - consists of a large nave and choir in one bulding (ab. 32 m) with a threesided eastern finish, a low sidenave to the north and in the eastern extension of this a more narrow chapel building - and at the west gable of the main nave a slender tower. Everything was built at the same time, in the beginning of the 1500s, in yellow monk bricks and in a clean late Gothic style. Similar to the northern sidenave was along the south side of the church a  cloister (noted in excavations in 1910), which was the cause why the large point arched windows of the southside were placed very high in the wall. The main nave gets furthermore light through a couple of high windows in the east and southeast bays of the choir-polygon. The entrance is now via an original door in the north wall of the sidenave.  Two original doors in the south side of the main nave are bricked-up. A prettily profiled point arched door, which did connect the choir with the chapel building, became visible after the taking down of Levetzau's epitaph in 1958. The large well-proportioned church room is covered by highly placed rib-vaults, 5 in the main nave, 5 in the sidenave and 1 in the chapel. The vaults are counterbalanced by outside supporting pillars,except at the south side, which two pillars are newer and built after the cloister was demolished.

Øland church, photo: wikipedia
From the vaults of the sidenave are the two western only half as big as the others, and the same goes for the two western of the five pointed arches, which originally made a connection between the two naves. The explanation is that the western bay of the main nave former had two storeys of which the upper storey (ab. 3,5 m above floor)  was the special choir of the nuns, who according to the rules had to stay in the west end of the church. The nun choir was carried by four cross vault in the bottom story, resting upon a midlle pillar. The bottom storey probably opened out to the main nave in two small pointed arches in the same way like the present towards the side nave. A pointed arch connected also the nun coir with the very high, vaulted tower room, which functioned as a front hall, and where is still  seen traces after bricked stairs which led up to the nun choir. Since the present door of the tower, to the south and north, hardly are original, the access from the kloster-buildings must have taken place via the south doors of the nave and an opening below in the western wall.  In the 1600s the eastern wing of the sidenave and the chapel east of this were furnished as a burial chapel with access through a portal with a wrought iron gate in the eastern arcade. Upon the tower are the initials of H.F. Levetzau and Anna Margrethe Brockdorff and the year 1758, since the upper section was restored and probably rebuilt. the church is white washed  and the roof leaded. A fragmentary frescoe-decoration from early Renaissance was found in 1958 behind the above mentioned epitaph, which was taken down.


interior, photo: wikipedia.
The altarpiece is a late Gothic triptychon from the beginning of the 1500s, in the late 1600s the altarpiece got a Baroque frame (large wings) (with the coat of arms and initials  of H.F. Levetzau and L. E. Brockdorff)  and a top piece with a carved Christ-group. The altar chalice was given by H.F. Levetzau  (+ 1696) and wife Lucie Emerentze Brockdorff. The ore candelabres in a late Gothic type are probably contemporary to the altarpiece. Next to the altar stands a magnificent, almost 6 m tall monstrans house from the beginning of the 1500s, richly carved in oak and with the name of prior Jens Nielsen in Ø Kloster. A thurible in Romanesque type is kept in the choir. A baptismal font in hourglass-shape in wrought iron from ab. 1700. The pulpit with a sounding board is a Renaissance work from the beginning of the 1600s. The pews are from the 1800s. An organ is placed upon a western gallery.  One of the chandeliers was given by G.D. Levetzau of Tjele and Elkær. A bell from 1513 is now in the National Museum.

Burials and Epitaphs::
In the burial chapel stand three marble sarcophagus and one sandstone coffin, belonging to Theodosius v. Levetzau, (+ 1719), his wife Anna Margrethe Brockdorff (+ 1763), their son Hans F. Levetzau (+ 1763) with wife Sophia v. Eyndten (+ 1795). Several coffins were in 1889 placed in a now bricked-up grave-cellar under the eastern vault, and the coffin plates hang in the chapel. Upon the north wall of the choir, east of the portal towards the burial chapel, was set up in 1726 a magnificent 5 m high epitaph in black and white marble in Rococo style for Hans Fr. Levetzau (+ 1696), and wife Lucie Emerentze Brockdorff (+ 1699)  with their white marble statues in natural size.  The epitaph, which was possibly created by the sculptor Fr. Ehbisch, was in 1958 taken down as the beginning of a restoration. Upon the south wall the rests of a sandstone epitaph from 1595 for Jørgen Thube (Taube) (+ 1611) and wife Ellen Banner (+ 1590).

1) above mentioned Ellen Banner; 2) manager at Oksholm Mads Andersen (+ 1706), and wife; 3) Anne Nielsdatter, died at Oksholm 1721; 4) Thomas Olsen (+ 1721), and wife; 5) birkedommer Anders Vognsen (+ 1740), and wife; 6)  parish priest Anders Lund (+ 1765), and wife; 7) manager at Oksholm Søren Glud (+ 1790) , and wife ; 8) Magdalene Christensen, née Hass, m to manager Christensen at Oksholm, (+ 1796); 9 ) birkeskriver Laurids Madsen,  b. 1672, and wife.

It is not known if the earlier Kloster church stood in the same place. Some granite ashlars are inserted in the present building and a Romanesque column-capital in cube form is kept at Oksholm. In 1562 the parish people had a royal permission to break down the Sct. Laurentii Kapel and use timber and stones for a repair of Ø Kloster church. The chapel stood close west of Oksholm upon a flat bank south of two joined dams, called the Silaus-dams. ( note from Trap Danmark: misrepresentation of Sct Laurentius?)

Oksholm/Oxholm 1869, wikipedia.
Oksholm, the earlier Ø Kloster (1268  claustro Hø, 1272 Øø) was in the Middle Ages a nunnery of the Benedictines, inaugurated to Vor Frue (Our Lady) ( 1475 Monasterium Beatæ Mariæ virginis de insula ordinis S. Benedicti). The kloster was supposedly founded ab. 1175 by bishop Tyge of Børglum (+ 1177), who probably came from Øland, according to his fatherne properties, which he before his death gave to the establishment of the kloster. It is latest mentioned in a will. In 1272 and 1279 king Erik V. Klipping confirmed the freedom of its estate and of the tenant farmers. Under this estate was also the birkeretten (judicial rights). The same was done by king Valdemar III in 1327; and still in 1524 Frederik I confirmed the fishing rights of the kloster. The leader of the nuns was a  prioress (Edele is mentioned in 1462, Maren Pedersdatter in 1525), while the management of the estate was led by a prior (originally a priest); from these are mentioned Aage 1293, Anders Pedersen 1356, Niels 1391, maybe the same as Niels Ovesen, who was  mentioned 1418-22, Thomas Nielsen 1440, Jep Thyrysen 1447, Peder Dus 1458-59. The Crown began however in the 1400s to appoint laymen as managers, but in 1475 the pope transferred the patronat-righs to Børglum Kloster. The last known priors are Gerluf Mortensen Glob 1462-98 and Jens Nielsen Sparre 1504-20.

Børglum kloster, grethe bachmann

In the first decades of the 1500s were the bishops of Børglum (Niels Stygge (+ 1533) and Stygge Krumpen (+ 1551) mis-ruling the kloster and -  acc. to a written complaint from 1536 - only 3 nuns were left, the others were driven away or had escaped. The estate of the kloster was gradually rather extensive, especially the estate in Vendsyssel, in Salling and at Mors. Furthermore were eel-farms and other fishing rights in Limfjorden. Everything was withdrawn to the Crown at the reformation. The Crown handed in 1542 the kloster and estate over to the earlier Odense-bishop Knud Henriksen Gyldenstierne  (+ 1560) as a pawn-vasalry. Some of the bishop's duties was to provide for the nuns. In 1566 Josias Qualen (+1586) released the royal permission, but the later rigsråd Axel Knudsen Gyldenstierne of Tim (+ 1603) got it already in 1571. In 1573 Frederik II exchanged the kloster with a part of the estate for Rygård (at Sjælland) and some spread estate to Frants Banner of Kokkedal, while a part of the estate stayed pawn-vasalry under Axel Gyldenstierne and since came under Voergård. Frants Banner let now the kloster be named Oksholm after his wife Anne Oxe, but he died in 1575 and she in 1601. O. possibly was inherited by their two daughters Karen Banner of Gisselfeld and Kokkedal + 1616, m. to Henrik Lykke of Overgård (+ 1611) and Ellen Banner (+ 1590 at O), m. to Jørgen Taube (Due) - a nobleman who was born in Livland ( = a historic landscape in the Baltics, now divided between Estonia and Latvia). He took up residence at O. - also after a new marriage to Lene Christoffersdatter Juel (+ 1629) - until his death in 1611.

Øland/Oksholm from air, Google earth.

His son Frands Due (+ latest 1627) had - because of debt - to refrain O. in 1620 to Palle Rodsteen of Hørbylund (+ 1643), who still the same year must have transferred it to Georg (Jørgen) Ernst Worm (Wurmb) of Vår and Ørndrup (+ earliest 1625). In 1623 Iver Jørgensen Friis (of Haraldskær) of Ørbæk owned the farm, but he died the same year, his widow fru Dorete Budde of Volstrup (Hjerm herred)( + earliest 1638), deeded 1626 1/2 of O. to her son Jørgen Iversen Friis (of Haraldskær) who died under age in 1631. In 1638 she and her two sons-in-law Henrik Sandberg of Bøgsted (+ 1651), m. to Mette Iversdatter Friis (of Haraldskær)( + 1684) and Knud Seefeld of Bjørnkjær (+ ab. 1680), m. to Karen Iversdatter Friis (of Haraldskær) owned O. in common, but since Knud Seefeld became the sole owner, he lost O. in 1667-68, when mayor in Randers, Mads Poulsen (+ 1676) made claim  in O. for his credit . In 1670 Mads Poulsen transferred O. together with three other creditors to Hans Fr. Levetzau (born in Mecklenburg) of Restrup, after whose death in 1696 the farm and estate went to his son Theodosius v. Levetzau (+ 1719), whose widow of 2. marriage, Anna Margrethe Brockdorff (+ 1763) in 1729 deeded O. to her son Hans Fr. Levetzau (the Younger),( + 1763). His widow Sophia v Eyndten kept the farm until her death 1795. The estate of the deceased was in 1795 sold to her next son Albert Philip Levetzau (+ 1817), who still in 1795 sold both farms to Søren Hillerup of Asdal (+ 1829), who 1797 sold O. to Ole Tønder Lange of Bratskov, Hans Hansen of Lyngholm and Jakob Bregendahl.

Later owners: Sophus Peter Fr. Skeel; Niels Chr. Rasch;  Hans Peter Nielsen; Nikolaj Nyholm; Carl Julius Sønnichsen; Carl Friederich Heinrich Goedecke ; Henry Johan Jacob Louis Bruun Neergaard; Claudine Caroline Elisabeth Bruun Neergaard, née Skeel; Otto Skeel; Hendrik greve Bille-Brahe-Selby; Sigurd Andersen.

Source wikipedia Owners: (1961-1962) Vera Alfredsdatter Blom gift Andersen; (1962-1968) Frode Hansen; (1968-1998) Steen Pedersen Glarborg; (1998-) Kirsten Vibeke Frodesdatter Hansen gift Glarborg

house opposite Oksholm, Google earth.











There is no knowledge of prehistorics at Øland, but there was some Stone Age settlement. Besides spread findings was at Selbjerg examined a kitchen midden, which was inhabited both in early Stone Age and late Stone Age. A magnificent gold necklace from Iron Age was in 1857 sent to the National Museum with the information that it was found in the *vejle between Øland and the mainland. It was later informed that it was ploughed up at Oksholm's land, but the finder was afraid if the landlord at Oksholm would claim the ring, if he knew this.

* vejle is a wet area, (Vejlerne is a nature area in North Jutland)  

Names from the Middle ages and 1600s: Østerby (1573 Østerbye); Vesterby (1573 Vesterbye); Oksholm (1638 Oxholm); Hvolgård (1573 Hvolgaard); Vester Knudegård (1479 Knud..., 1573 Knudergaard, 1688 Knudegaarde).


Source: Trap Danmark, Hjørring amt, 1960:  


photo from google earth, wikipedia.

Børglum kloster: grethe bachmann  



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