Monday, October 05, 2009
Gudum church/ Gudum kirke & Gudumkloster, Skodborg herred, Ringkøbing amt.
Gudum Church, ab. 10 km west of StruerGudum sogn, Skodborg herred, Ringkøbing amt.
The large church in Gudum was once a klosterkirke for the Benedictine nuns, and it was probably built instead of a Romanesque ashlar building. It has a rectangular, late Gothic longhouse with a later additon, a Gothic crossarm to the south and a modern tower to the west.The late Gothic longhouse is built in dark red monk bricks in the end of the 1400s; after 1484 when the kloster was moved to here, it formed the south wing of the four winged klosterplan. In the western section of the longhouse are two bricked-up doors, to the north a flat curved door in a pointed arch frame, to the south a similar, larger door, which is visible as an inside niche. The low placed pointed arch windows have strange window frames, connected in heavy *rundstaves . Their placement must have something to do with the function as a nunnery (galleries for the nuns), and they are all bricked-up. The window in the choir to the east stands as an inside niche, it was once a double round arch window in a pointed arch frame, likewise with curved profiles.
The longhouse has a beamed ceiling, it is divided by wall pillars and was once , maybe only partly vaulted. The cross arm has a cross vault. A tower to the west, which was removed after a fire in 1631, was probably from late Gothic period. After the reformation the low placed windows were bricked-up, and were replaced with large windows in pointed arch frames. The walls have been repaired with small bricks over the years. Instead of a small 1800s-porch at the west gable was built a new tower ab. 1930. A cross marked thympanum from the presumed Romanesque ashlar building is placed in the wall.
(*rundstav = beading, which cross section is part of the arc of a circle)
A fragmentary fresco inscription was brought to light in 1914 in the disappeared choir vault ; it mentions the Ribe-bishop Hartvig Juel and the prioress Elene Juelsdatter and announces that this work was completed in 1492. The altar piece is an elegant joinery in late Renaissance from 1640 with reliefs and partly free figure images of the Holy Communion, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the evangelists. It was repaired in 1910. The chalice is partly late Gothic and was "improved" in 1557 by the rector of the kloster Malte Sehested. It has the name and coat of arms of Erik Ottesen (Rosenkrantz) and was in 1768 again re-made by Jens Wandborg de Stiernhielm. The Romanesque granite font, which probably is from the Romanesque church, is in the West Jutland type with sepals. The smooth brass baptismal bowl is of indefinable age. The pulpit is pretty and a little naive high Renaissance with a painted year 1622 and with the coat of arms of the vasal Gunde Lange and evangelist paintings from the 1700s. It was repaired in 1921. In the west end of the church a gallery from 1767 with the coat of arms of Jens Wandborg de Stiernhielm and good paintings of biblical motives. The bell from 1553 is cast by Rasmus Lauridsen, but its inscription was damaged by a welding. A late Gothic grave stone for Palne Juel of Ulstrup (+ after 1503) and wife Helena, the stone shows two shields above each other.
Gudumkloster has got its name from the nunnery of the Benedictine-order, which was here. An old proverb by Peder Syv says:" Han er så hellig som en Gudummunk", ("He is as pious as a monk from Gudum") must refer to the priests, who were connected to the nunnery to do the church services. The establishment-year of the nunnery is not known, but it must be earlier than 1268, where it is remembered in a will. Gudumkloster's situation in a river-valley was changed, when it in 1484 moved up to the vicarage-site and was connected to Gudum church, which till then had been a parish church, but was now a kloster church. The kloster owned most of Gudum sogn (parish) and large properties in the surrounding herreds (districts). In 1439 it achieved patronage rights of Nr. Nissum Church, in 1494 of Fabjerg Church.
The leader of the nunnery was a prioress, while a prior - either the priest or a secular nobleman - administered the estate and saw to the support of the nuns. In 1476 Lyder Juel was priest and prior in the nunnery, in 1504 and 1508 is mentioned Palle Juel in Gudum, and from 1531 Christiern Skram was administrator. From prioresses is known Ellen Juel or Hjulsdatter in 1504, daughter of Jes Persen Hjul in St. Kamstrup. At the reformation the nunnery came to the Crown, which in 1537 endowed it to Jens Thomesen Sehested of Holmgård and from 1550 to the son Malte Sehested. The nuns had still their support in the kloster, and in 1573, when the support was transferred to Mariager kloster, were only 3 nuns left in Gudumkloster. In 1670 Gudumkloster came to the Ryttergods (military) In 1717 it was sold and conveyed to captain Anders Rasch. Later owners: Vedel, Jelstrup, Olesen. Since 1939 L.B.Rahbek.
Trabjerggård was a main farm, which in 1496 was owned by Hans Olufsen, who had the coat of arms of the family Galskyt and left T. to his son-in-law Niels Spend, who in 1504 and 1513 is mentioned to T. and whose son Jens Spend owned it in 1553. In 1599 and 1619 is mentioned in T. jomfru Ellen Rytter, whose paternal grandmother was a sister of Jens Spend. In 1633 it belonged under Holmgård.
Surkær was a main farm, since the væbner Anders Spend in 1545 conveyed it to Jens Thomesen (Sehested) of Holmgård. In 1575 was the owner Jens Thomesens's son Malte Jensen of Holmgård. In 1718 it belonged to the Ryttergods, which was conveyed to Anders Rasch together with Gudumkloster.
Østergård was in 1400 owned by Peder Nielsen (Qvie). In 1520 it belonged to Christen Mørk in Ørs, and in 1574 it was by the Crown conveyed to Christen Juel of Bækmark. In 1810 conveyed to Christen Lundsgaard and Erik Houmark.
Skodborggård, after which the herred got its name and where the herreds thing was held until the beginning of the 1600s, seems to have been a main farm, which in 1490 belonged to Oluf Pedersen Glob, whose sons Anders G. and hr. Albert G. owned it in 1504. Iver Juel of Lykkesholm conveyed it in 1581 to Malte Jensen (Sehested) of Holmgård.
Krogsgård belonged to the part of the Ryttergods, which in 1718 was conveyed to captain Anders Rasch together with Gudumkloster. Various owners. In 1947 O.Pedersen.
Åmølle (listed in class B) has a beautiful place upon the flat meadow under the coast cliff to where it moved after the storm in 2-3. january 1839. The mill-building is from 1790.
There were several sacred wells in the parish: Vor Frue kilde in the valley downside Gudumkloster; Skuekilden or Skovkilden between Trabjerggård and the country road; Plumkilde in Plumkær northwest of Gudum village; Ravnskilde, probably at Østergård, Ovskilde on the nort side of a hill at Tang.
Gudum birk (judicial rights) belonged to Gudumkloster. The bishop in Ribe had in 1468 confirmation on the birkerettighederne (judicial rights) . After the reformation Gudum became a special vasalry and the judicial rights was kept until 7/10 1684, when the birk came under Skodborg herred. It was the largest part of Gudum parish.
In the parish are three castle banks. South of Ø. Lind, on the west side of Trælborgdalen is Trælborg, which is mentioned already in 1638 in a priest-report. It is natural piece of land stretching out into the river valley, on both sides bordered by natural lowland, which is connected with an artificial dry moat, which divides the castle site from the higher land. The area is partly forest. A little northwest of this castle bank north of the country road is an overploughed castle bank, which reminds much about the first. Finally is south of Skovgård on the southern hill edge out to Trælborgdalen a small castle bank, with a bank site ab. 17 m diameter, protected by a dry moat, which at both sides run out into the cliff to the river valley. The place is overgrown in forest.
Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s:
Gudum (1266 Guthum); Surkær (* 1503 Surkier); Trabjerg (* 1451 Trabierg bye); Trabjerg Gårde (* 1469 Trabierggaard); Bjerrum (* 1503 Bierrum); Bredal (* 1465 Nørbredall, 1664 Nør- Synnder Breddahl); Vium (* 1492 Wim); Lind (* 1503 Gudum Lind, 1614 Paa Linde); Tang (1614 Thange,Tange); Fiskbæk (* 1530 Fiskbeck); Skodborg (* 1467 Skodborg, Skodbore); Hestbæk (* 1503 Hestbech Vaj, 1614 Hestbeck); Råbjerg (1683 Raaberig, Robiere); Ørevejle (1614 Ør Veyell); Gudumkloster (* 1439 Gudom closter); Tangsgård (1440 Tangsgardh); Havskov (*1541 Hauffskouff ende, 1664 Hauschouff); Øster Tang (1664 Øster Tannge); Remmer (* 1451 Trabierg Remme, 1664 Remme, 1688 Remmer); Højbjerg (* 1520 Hogberig, Høigberigs jord, 1532 Høgeberg); Hvistendal (* 1444 Huidsteendall); Hornshøj (1613 Hornsz Hiuff); Krøjkær (* 1492 Kraadkier, 1614 Krojkier); Stavsbol (* 1471 Staffsboels jord, Stauffsboels eng); Skov ( 1614 Paa Skouff); Skovgård ( * 1499 Skowgord); Sivekær ( 1610 Sibe Kier); Gammeltoft (* 1467 Gammel Tofftt); Hedegård (1609 Hiegaardt); V. Åsbjerg ( 1614 Aatzbierg) Mølgård (* 1503 Møllgaards jord); Klostermølle (1614 Closter Mølle); Åmølle(* 1490 Aa mølen, 1492 Aarss Mølle, 1614 Aaemølle).
Listed prehistorics: 50 hills, of which a large part is a row in the hillside along the oldtidsvejen (prehistoric road), which goes east-west through the parish on the border between the good soil and the heath. 7 of the hills in this row are large, like several hills at Skodborg mose (moor). Outside the row of hills are several large hills like Rishøj at Havskov, 3 hills, like Kongshøj at the vicarage, a hill east of Tangsgård and another Rishøj in the State plantation.
Source: Trap Danmark, Ringkøbing amt, 1965.
photo Gudum kirke/Struer 2003: grethe bachmann