Sunday, October 25, 2009

Voldum church/ Voldum kirke and Clausholm, Galten herred, Randers amt.

Voldum church, 13 km southeast of RandersVoldum sogn, Galten herred, Randers amt

The large church was mainly built in 1606 by Peder Brahe and wife and their son-in-law Otto Marsvin after the old church one Sunday cracked during service and broke down during the night. The building material is big red monk bricks with filling of travertine from the old church in the walls of the new building. Rests from the old church is the late Gothic porch in red monk bricks. Former wall parts from the end of the Middle Ages are also in the western part of the nave which is the vaulted bottom room from an earlier tower. The present tower is equipped with a pyramid roof.

The interior has richly carved Baroque inventory and several monumental gravestones with portraits. The altar piece is from 1678. The pulpit is from the 1600s like the richly carved wooden baptismal font which carries the names of Herluf Trolle and Birgitte Gøye and the year 1570. From the 1600s is also an impressive manor stool and opposite a parish clerk stool. In the oldest tower room is a grating which originally was a choir grating, but now is a border to a burial chamber. The smallest church bell without inscription is from late Middle Ages.

In the choir wall two gravestones: 1) rigshovmester Mogens Gøye (+ 1544) with two wives, Mette Albrechtsdatter Bydelsbak and Margrehe Clausdatter Sture, 2) for his son Axel Gøye ( + 1537) with his carved picture, made in 1543. In the porch is another grave stone for another son Eskil Gøye of Gunderslevholm (+ 1560) with wife Sidsel Bryske (+ 1573) and one for Otte Gyldenstierne (+ 1551) and wife Helvig Gøye, all with portrait figures. A beautiful gilt cross from Sidsel Bryske's coffin is now placed upon the altar.

Names in the Middle Ages:
Voldum (* 1428 Wollum, 1507 Wollom); Hvalløs (* 1472 Hualløss) Rigtrup (* 1463 Richtrup); Clausholm (* 1360 Clausholm, 1426 Claxholm).

Svendsbro mølle was in 1416 among the estate which Jens Nielsen Løvenbalk gave to an altar in Århus domkirke as a penance for his killing Jens Jensen (Brok) of Clausholm; at that time it was situated in Lime parish. In 1477 it was conveyed to the owner of Clausholm. From the end of the 1600s it was named Mellemmølle; it then was part of Hørning hospital which in ab. 1740 was conveyed to fæsteren ( the copyholder).

In the end of the 1800s Revensmølle was demolished (1552 Rebbing Mølle, 1664 Rebens Mølle), but the name is still kept as a house-name. Mellemmølle was earlier named Svendsbro mølle
(* 1416 Swenstorp bromøllne, * 1497 Sanctj Siluestrj and Tome alters mølle, named Suensbromølle), which possibly was situated by a settlement Svendstorp. Furthermore is mentioned the farms Kragballe (1552 Kragballe) and Brendegård ( 1552 Brenndegaard), the last mentioned in Rigtrup, and Flinthuset (1683 Flindthuuszet) between Clausholm and Voldum.

A sacred well , still attended in the 1800s, is at the foot of Kildebakke (a hill) close to the å (water stream) north of Hvalløs.Listed prehistorics: 5 hills of which 3 are in Clausholm forest, one is named Jomfruhøj.

Demolished or destroyed: 37 hills, of which 10 were at the fields of Clausholm and 15 at the fields of Rigtrup. Important burial sites with clay pot graves from early Roman Iron Age were examined at Schildenseje and Rigtrup.

Clausholm slot

In a piece of land, rich in old and historical manors between Århus and Randers, is one of Denmark's largest and most impressive Baroque buildings. Clausholm is marked by the connection to queen Anna Sophie and her dramatic and tragic life story, a Danish queen who spent her last 12 years in banishment at Clausholm more than 200 years ago.

Clausholm is the best preserved herregårdskompleks (manor buildings) in Denmark from the Baroque period. The three-winged main building is built in the 1690s by storkansler (first chancellor) Conrad Reventlow. Most of the interior are from the first half of the 1700s and the first beginning of the Baroque garden started already in 1689.

As soon as in the 1300s was here a large estate which belonged to the family Panter. The Panter -family and other nobility families in Jutland were often in open conflict with king Valdemar Atterdag who in 1359 actually had to conquer Clausholm, which probably was fortificated at that time. Lage Ovesen Panter was one of the leaders of the Jutland rebellion in 1368. It was undoubtedly the conquering Clausholm which was referred to on an inscription in Voldum Church - in the 1800s copied upon a tablet at Clausholm, telling about king Valdemar's destruction of the estate in 1235.

After having belonged to hr. Uffe Nielsen Panter and his son Lave Uffesen (Ovesen) Panter, Clausholm came via Lave's daughter Ide to her husband (Niels) Jens Jensen Brock who in 1404 was killed by landsdommer (High Court judge) hr. Jens Nielsen Løvenbalk, who after this had to enter into a very costy and humiliating atonement. The manor came to Jens Brock's son Lage Jensen Brock (+1435). While he was the owner the house burnt twice. The next owner was his son Axel Lagesen Brock (+1498) and his son-in-law Laurids Albrechtsen Bydelsbak, who died in 1500 as the last male of the family. His son-in-law Mogens Gøye built a new stone house at Clausholm which later was divided between his children Albrecht Gøye and Ellen Gøye, who was married to Mourids Olufsen Krognos. After her death Clausholm went to her son Oluf Mouridsen Krognos, who was married to Anna Hardenberg, whom Frederik II was in love with and wanted to marry. Oluf Mouridsen died at Clausholm in 1573 as the last male of his family - and after him the owner was his mother's brother, the childless Christoffer Gjøe of Aunsbjerg.

Clausholm was in 1686 taken over by grev Conrad Reventlow. He was a rich and powerful man, who later as a storkansler (first chancellor) was in the lead of the Danish government and brought new splendor to Clausholm where he built a magnificent castle. After his death in 1708 Clausholm came to his widow Sophie Amalie Hahn. King Frederik IV and Conrad Reventlow's youngest daughter Anna Sophie had met at a masked ball at Koldinghus and fell passionately in love. The king had a queen, Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow - but in 1712 he abducted the 19 year old Anna Sophie and married her to his left hand at Skanderborg Slot -and appointed her fyrstinde (princess )af Slesvig. When queen Louise died 9 years later, the king married Anna Sophie again, this time to his right hand - and he himself put the crown upon her head . This happened at Frederiksberg slot.

The king bought Clausholm in 1718 and let build additions and equipped the castle with magnificent stucco ceilings and had the panels decorated etc. When Frederik IV died Christian VI treated his father's widow very badly. She was banished to Clausholm where she with a Royal household had a life suiting fairly her social status. Anna Sophie died 12 years later. After her death in 1743 Clausholm was sold by auction and after several owners the estate came in 1800 to gehejmeråd H.H. von Schilden whose descendants is the family Berner Schilden Holsten, still the owners of Clausholm.

Upon a section of the castle motte east of the present building was during excavatings in 1950 found a medieval, about 85 cm broad travertine wall with granite boulder foundation and rests of a walled house. Fire tracks and findings of crossbow arrows make it likely that some buildings were demolished when Valdemar Atterdag had his fights with the Jutland nobility in 1359.

Clausholm Park was established as a French garden with a fine use of the terrain with cascades, fountains and ornamental lakes. Anna Sophie replaced the cascades with stairs and painted statues and extended the park with a long avenue leading to the animal park.

After 30 years of thorough restoration of Clausholm Kim Berner was in 1994 given the Europa Nostra prize for 1993.

There is public access to main building and park. Herregårdsmuseum, butik and café.

Danske slotte og herregårde, Djursland, bd. 14; Jytte Ortmann: Slotte og herregårde i Danmark; Trap Danmark, Randers amt, 1963; Niels Peter Stilling: Danmarks slotte og herregårde.

In a field by Alling Å, not far from Clausholm was in 1951 found a mask stone (Århusstenen) from the Viking Period with face, plaited beard and round staring eyes. In ancient times was a crossing at this place of the river and the stone stands in its original place. In excavations are found rests of a bridge in several layers 1) a paved ford from early Iron Age, 2) a solid timber road from the middle of the 700s and 3) another and better bridge from about 1000. The stone was probably painted and was meant as a protection against evil spirits. Copy at Moesgård Museum
foto 2003: grethe bachmann

Source: Trap Danmark, Randers amt, 1963.

photo Clausholm 2003, Voldum kirke 2008: grethe bachmann

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