Sunday, January 31, 2010

Tvilum church / Tvilum kirke, Gjern herred, Skanderborg amt.

Tvilum Church (Klosterkirke), ab. 7 km north of Silkeborg
Tvilum sogn, Gjern herred, Skanderborg amt.

The altar piece in Århus cathedral

The large Tvilum Church is situated in beautiful surroundings on the meadows at Gudenå river. It was once the northern wing of the long gone Tvilum Augustine kloster. It is now a one-nave tilework-building, divided into three vault-bays, completely without additions. Examinations of the wall-work have shown that in the two eastern bays are rests of a church building from the time ab. 1250. To this was added an over-vaulted sacristy in the north side, of which are still traces of roof and a couple of door-openings. In the choir wall behind the altar is a double niche with trefoil-curves, which also originates from the first church. Later in the 1200s the church was built up till its present height, two bays of octagonal cupola vaults were built, and the walls had large window-groups, except in the wall of the sacristy. In the late Middle Ages was the church extended to the west with another vault-bay, a low Gothic-marked door to the north and south and in the south-west corner was inserted a winding stair up to the room above the vaults. After the demolition of the kloster a porch was built at the south door. In a restoration 1872 this porch was demolished, a new door was built in the gable - and behind it was added a low entrance hall under the organ-gallery. The supporting pillars at the walls of the church are rather new. When it in Pont. Atals IV. 217 is claimed that the church once had a tower, this cannot be confirmed. Upon the choir gable are Fr. V.'s initials and the year 1758. The inside with the three halfcupolar vaults, divided by pointed arch arcades, has kept much of the young Gothic mark of the room.

Two Romanesque thympanum inserted in the wall.

Upon the walled communion table is a large late medieval triptychion, which reminds about Bernt Notke's altar pice in Århus domkirke. In a restoration of the altar piece in 1942 a row of coat of arms were discovered upon the canopy for Peder Rosenørn and Anna de Hemmer. At the same time was restored a large late medieval choir arch crucifix, which now hangs in the orth wall of the nave. A Romanesque granite font with arcade motives, a south German baptismal bowl. A pulpit from ab. 1620 of the same type as the pulpit in Dallerup, re-painted with a new entrance 1955. Several grave memorials from the 1700s.

In a marsh near Gudenå river was Tvilum kloster situated for canons of the Augustine order. It was established in the beginning of the 1200s by monks from Dalby in Skåne and inaugurated to virgin Mary, it was governed by a rural dean. In 1256 there was a complaint about the king's excessive visiting, and in 1513 the rural dean bought by Chr. II freedom to keep borgelejede (rented)horses in the kloster. Its estate was especially in Tvilum, Gjern and Skorup parishes in 1280. The nunnery in Søby was connected to Tvilum kloster. At the reformation the kloster was abandoned and its estate was transferred in 1537 to Silkeborg castle.

Tvilumgård was originally a farm house of the kloster (1428 Lathegurth, Lathegarth) and came in 1537 under Silkeborg Castle. In 1568 Fr. II ordered to built a hunting house there, it was very dilapidated in 1622, but it had to be repaired, in 1631 they had to break down both the hunting house and the farm house - and only the farm house had to be re-built. In 1661 T. was bought by the Randers- mayor Mads Poulsen, whose son kancelliråd Peder Madsen in 1679 was ennobled with the name Rosenørn. Owners from 1767: Trappaud, outparcelling; Bjørn, Rieffesthal, Busck, Dolbjerg Miller , Hjort, Due. From 1961 M. Glytting.

Little is known about the Tvilum kloster-buildings. Upon the church yard were in 1904 found few foundation-rests from a three-winged kloster-plan, where the church was the northern wing. The buildings disappeared soon after the reformation, and there is now knowledge about it.

the old church dike

the old church dike (in November)

When the present main building Tvilumgård was built is not known. Fr. II ordered to build a hunting house. The building was probably a simple half-timbered house, but it was very demolished in the Kejserkrigen, and in 1631 it was broken down. The timber was used for a repair of the farm buildings. After the wars 1658-60 all the buildings were dilapidated. It is not know if it was re-built in Rosenørn's time , but in 1720 the whole plan was declined , in 1768 Pont. Atlas mentions the farm as being without buildings, but before 1785 was built a new farm house. In the 1870s was buil the present main building . In front of the building were earlier placed two Romanesque granite thympanums, one with two lions, another with head and arms of the crucified Christ. Both stones are now inserted in the wall of Tvilum church. A Romanesque window coverstone, which like the two thympanums originates from the old church, is kept at Tvilumgård. The large farm buildings are built in 1854. The large garden continues into the forest.

Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s: Tvilum kirke (* 1256 Tvilum, 1268 Twilum); Fårvang
(1200s Fardale, 1586 Faaruong); Horn (1579 Horn); Truust (* 1393 Trust); Kongensbro (1683 Kongens Brou); Tvilumgård (1579 Tuillom Ladegaard, 1664 Tuilumb gaard).

Listed prehistorics: 13 hills, of which Lådnehøj north of Fårvang. Fiskerhøj at Tvilumgård and a hill south of Truust are rather large.
Demolished or destroyed: 75 hills, of which the main part were in groups along Gudenå. Next has at Tvilumgård been a stone grave. At Truust were examined 14 hills, which contained single graves from Stone Age. - A settlement from Gudenåkulturen is known from Sminge sø. In a meadow at Horn were found two winded neckrings from late Bronze Age.

Source: Trap Danmark, Skanderborg amt. 1964.

photo Tvilum klosterkirke 2003/2008: grethe bachmann

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