Monday, July 20, 2009
Vrejlev church/ Vrejlev klosterkirke, Børglum herred Hjørring amt
Vrejlev Klosterkirke formed the north wing of the præmonstranser-kloster, which later was changed into a manor. It now consists of a Gothic two-naved longhouse which still holds considerable parts of a Romanesque building. The western tower is Gothic. The Romanesque church was earlier a three-naved basilica with choir and apse. Considerable parts of this are kept in the north wall of the nave and in the west gable; in the south-west is a double arcade which once connected the main nave to the now disappeared south-side nave. There are spread rests of Romanesque windows and curved apse stones. The church was built in granite ashlars; now the granite ashlars are mixed with fields walled in monk bricks, especially in the upper sections. This might be caused by later work on the wall.
In 1215 Børglum Kloster applied for permission from the pope to found a convent, which probably was Vrejlev, and the church was therefore not built until some years later. After having been a convent for 200-300 years it was like its mother-kloster Børglum from unknown reasons put through a extensive rebuild. A slender tower was built west of the main nave at the same time. The church has mainly kept its look from the end of the Middle Ages. The years 1655, 1667 and 1863 upon the walls mark repairs.
At the curves above the choir chapels are painted som Danish coat of arms. In the brick-built communion table's reliquary was at the inauguration placed a leaden capsule with inscription: "ad summum altare"( for the high altar); it is now in the National Museum. The very impressive altar piece was ornamented by Jacob Tamsen from Hjørring, and according to the inscription "renovated" in 1642 via fru Ida Gøye, who in 1644 gave the magnificent altar chalice and together with her husband Jens Juel in 1639 gave the pulpit and the wooden baptismal font plus the carved wooden tralværk (on gallery) in front of the western choir chapel. The baptismal bowl has the year 1623 and the initials of Axel Brahe and Elisabeth Rosensparre. Upon an arcade pillar hangs a large late Gothic, outstandingly good executed crucifix. A gallery-panel in the west end and two parish clerk's stools and an ore chandelier from 1600.
From the end of the 1500s is a wooden tablet with verse, signed Karen Rønnow and with her and her husband Jens Bille's coat of arms; it was re-painted in 1696, paid by fru Helvig Krabbe. The church bell, possible from the middle of the 1400s, has a minuskel-inscription. The earliest inventory was since 1907 restored with the assistance of the National Museum. Some grave trees, portrait gravestones and magnificent coffins from the 1600s and 1700s.
The present manor was until the reformation a convent of the præmonstranser-order. The foundation year is not known, but it was founded as a daughter-kloster of the monastery in Børglum from where a brother in 1215 was sent to Rome in some business and bringing an admonition not to admitting sisters (from the order's main kloster in Prémontré.)Vrejlev kloster was probably not established then, but the convent functioned in 1254. The head of the nuns was a prioress, from these: Cecilie in 1335, Anna Povlsdatter in 1508-36 etc. A prior administered the estate of the kloster, it was probably a monk from Børglum Kloster, i.e. Niels in 1340, Jon Jensen (+ 1457); Niels Nielsen Banner (+ 1479) etc. Several of the priors lived at Børglum Kloster. Vrejlev Kloster did not gather large estate, but it had 11 farms and it was said to own Hæstrup church.
At the reformation the kloster came to the Crown, and the Børglum bishop Stygge Krumpen took care of it already in Fr.I's ruling period. Skipper Clement endowed it to Claus Iversen (Dyre), but after his short time as a chief Vrejlev was lead by the king's bailiff, until Ove Vincentsen Lunge of Tirsbæk,vasal of Åstrup, in 1538 took over Vrejlev Kloster as a vasalry. At his death in 1540 the former Viborg bishop Jøgen Friis of Haraldskær and Krastrup had the vasalry at Vrejlev for life, but he probably died in 1547, and the vasalry came for a short time under Aalborghus (castle). Later on vasals from noble families were Lykke, Skeel, Krabbe, Bille, Podebusk etc. Vrejlev Kloster was later sold and had various owners up til present.
The main building is placed south of the church and is parted from this by a road which is placed upon the disappeared east- and west wings, which have put traces upon the left standing south wing. An excavation showed it to be a narrow cross-passage of which the eastern met the choir of the nave.
Names in the Middle Ages and 1600s:
Vrejlevkloster (* 1253 Wreeluff cloesteer, 1268 Wrælefh claustro; 1335 Wrechløøf); Poulstrup (1470) Pouelstrop);Lund (* 1490 Lundt,); Harken (1664 Harckind, 1688 Harchen); Høgsted
(* 1431 Høgsteed); Tollestrup (1347 Thalnsthorp, 1406 Tholsttorp); Rønnebjerg (* 1431 Rønnebierere, 1470Ronneberg(h)); Guldager (* 1430 Gulldager); Gunderup (* 1424 Gunderup); Årup (*1424 Arup,1470 Arop); Gønderup (*1316 Gønnderup); Grønderup (*1448 Grønnderup, 1532 Grundrup); Bastholm (* 1433 Bastehollm); Stokbro (1610 Stochbrou); Rønnovsholm (Tierit or Rønnisholm); Haverholm (* 1431 Hauffuerholm); Lindestved ( * 1492 Lennedstued); Mynderup (*1496 Mynnderup); Rærup (1664 Rerup); Saksager (1552 Saxagere); Krogholm (1664 Krogholm); Nr. Tjæret (1662 Nør Tieret, 688 Nør Tierit; Ø. & V. Dammen (1664 Damen); Græshede ( * 1489 Greesheede); Sønder Broen ( 1688 Sønder Broen); Åbenterp ( * 1431 Obenntorp).
Haverholm is placed in the eastern part of the parish; it is mentioned earliest in 1431. In 1476 it was a large farm ,which belonged to hr. Stephen Christensen (Taarnskytte) of Linderumgård
(+ 1481), a parish priest in Ugilt, who in 1476 pawned it to his brother-in-law Jon Viffertsen (Viffert) of Torstedlund(+1493), married to Kirsten Christiernsdatter Taarnskytte(+ earliest 1511). Later it came to Vrejlev Kloster and was in 1637 sold by Anders Friis to fru Ide Gøye, a widow after oberst Jens Juel of Lindbjerggård (+ 1636). Various owners up til present.
Rønnovsholm was originally named Tjæret; it was a village of 5 farms, mentioned in 1430. In 1536 bishop Stygge Krumpen, prior Anders in Børglum and prioress Anne Povlsdatter pawned Vrejlev Tjæretgård to Niels Lauritsen. In 1575 the Crown exchanged the village Tjæret together with Vrejlev Kloster and other estate to Jens Clausen Bille of Billesholm, who died the same year. His widow Karen Ejlersdatter Rønnov took up residence in the village Tjæret, where she put together the copyhold farms into a home farm, named Rønnovsholm, where she lived as a widow. The old name Tjæret was used together with the new name still 100 years later. Various owners families Bille, Banner, Kaas (Sparre-K.) Lange, Holstein, Juel etc. and up til present.
The farm Lie belonged in the late Middle Ages Vrejlev Kloster, which in 1530 bought it via exchange from Christen Steen (Stenfeld) of Strandbygård (Gislum herred) (+ earliest 1516). After the reformation it was for a time under Åstrup vasalry, and in 1568 and 1577 lived fru Gissel here (+ earliest 1571), a widow after Gerd Thomsen (Vognsen of Stenshede) (+ bef. 1568). Later owners Rønnov, Rantzau, Friis, Juel etc.
In the farm V. Dammen died fru Abel Clausdatter Kaas (Sparre-K.) in 1700; she was the widow of Niels Lange (one rose-L.) of Rønnovsholm (+ 1675): ; in 1699 she sold V. Dammen to three sisters Juel who in 1698-1702 owned Vrejlev Kloster.
In the village Gunderup was still after the Clemensfeud a selvejergård (freeholder) Østergård, also named Bundgård; herredsfoged (bailiff) Anders Madsen (+ bef. 1542), who had been loyal to the king , achieved in 1537 a royal letter on Østergård.
Listed prehistorics: 9 hills , i.e. Jakobshøj at Høgsted and larger hills at Rønnebjerg, Årup and Saksager.
Demolished or destroyed: two longhills and 102 hills ; in the outskirts of a hill at Rønnebjerg was found a bronze vessel with burnt bones. Iron Age-settlements are known from Høgsted and Poulstrup; from Saksager are known several stone graves from Iron Age and at Guldager a large burial site from early Roman period. - Under a pillar in Vrejlev church was a stone with a rune-inscription which could not be deciphered.
Source: Trap Danmark, Hjørring amt, 1960.
photo Vrejlev kirke/kloster 2003: grethe bachmann